Overview of NCCL¶
The NVIDIA Collective Communications Library (NCCL, pronounced “Nickel”) is a library providing inter-GPU communication primitives that are topology-aware and can be easily integrated into applications.
NCCL implements both collective communication and point-to-point send/receive primitives. It is not a full-blown parallel programming framework; rather, it is a library focused on accelerating inter-GPU communication.
NCCL provides the following collective communication primitives :
Additionally, it allows for point-to-point send/receive communication which allows for scatter, gather, or all-to-all operations.
Tight synchronization between communicating processors is a key aspect of collective communication. CUDA based collectives would traditionally be realized through a combination of CUDA memory copy operations and CUDA kernels for local reductions. NCCL, on the other hand, implements each collective in a single kernel handling both communication and computation operations. This allows for fast synchronization and minimizes the resources needed to reach peak bandwidth.
NCCL conveniently removes the need for developers to optimize their applications for specific machines. NCCL provides fast collectives over multiple GPUs both within and across nodes. It supports a variety of interconnect technologies including PCIe, NVLINK, InfiniBand Verbs, and IP sockets.
Next to performance, ease of programming was the primary consideration in the design of NCCL. NCCL uses a simple C API, which can be easily accessed from a variety of programming languages. NCCL closely follows the popular collectives API defined by MPI (Message Passing Interface). Anyone familiar with MPI will thus find NCCL’s API very natural to use. In a minor departure from MPI, NCCL collectives take a “stream” argument which provides direct integration with the CUDA programming model. Finally, NCCL is compatible with virtually any multi-GPU parallelization model, for example:
- single-threaded control of all GPUs
- multi-threaded, for example, using one thread per GPU
- multi-process, for example, MPI
NCCL has found great application in Deep Learning Frameworks, where the AllReduce collective is heavily used for neural network training. Efficient scaling of neural network training is possible with the multi-GPU and multi node communication provided by NCCL.