## Abstract

This TensorRT Developer Guide demonstrates how to use the C++ and Python APIs for implementing the most common deep learning layers. It shows how you can take an existing model built with a deep learning framework and build a TensorRT engine using the provided parsers. The Developer Guide also provides step-by-step instructions for common user tasks such as creating a TensorRT network definition, invoking the TensorRT builder, serializing and deserializing, and how to feed the engine with data and perform inference; all while using either the C++ or Python API.

For previously released TensorRT developer documentation, see TensorRT Archives.

## 1. What Is TensorRT?

To get started with TensorRT, we recommend that you start with the TensorRT Quick Start Guide. The TensorRT Quick Start Guide is for users who want to try out TensorRT SDK; specifically, you'll learn how to quickly construct an application to run inference on a TensorRT engine.

The core of NVIDIA® TensorRT™ is a C++ library that facilitates high-performance inference on NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs). It is designed to work in a complementary fashion with training frameworks such as TensorFlow, PyTorch, MXNet, and so on. It focuses specifically on running an already-trained network quickly and efficiently on a GPU.

Some training frameworks such as TensorFlow have integrated TensorRT so that it can be used to accelerate inference within the framework. Alternatively, TensorRT can be used as a library within a user application. It includes an ONNX parser and C++ and Python APIs for building models programmatically.

Figure 1. TensorRT is a high-performance neural network inference optimizer and runtime engine for production deployment.

TensorRT optimizes the network by combining layers and optimizing kernel selection for improved latency, throughput, power efficiency, and memory consumption. If the application specifies, it optimizes the network to run in lower precision, further increasing performance and reducing memory requirements.

The TensorRT API includes implementations for the most common deep learning layers. For more information about the layers, refer to TensorRT Layers. You can also use the C++ Plugin API or Python Plugin API to provide implementations for infrequently used or more innovative layers that are not supported natively by TensorRT.

### 1.1. Benefits Of TensorRT

After the neural network is trained, TensorRT enables the network to be compressed, optimized, and deployed as a runtime without the overhead of a framework.

TensorRT combines layers, optimizes kernel selection, and also performs normalization and conversion to optimized matrix math depending on the specified precision (FP32, FP16 or INT8) for improved latency, throughput, and efficiency.

For deep learning inference, there are five critical factors that are used to measure software:
Throughput

The volume of output within a given period. Often measured in inferences/second or samples/second, per-server throughput is critical to cost-effective scaling in data centers.

Efficiency

Amount of throughput delivered per unit-power, often expressed as performance/watt. Efficiency is another key factor to cost-effective data center scaling since servers, server racks, and entire data centers must operate within fixed power budgets.

Latency

Time to execute an inference, usually measured in milliseconds. Low latency is critical to delivering rapidly growing, real-time inference-based services.

Accuracy

A trained neural network’s ability to deliver the correct answer.

Memory usage

The host and device memory that need to be reserved to do inference on a network depends on the algorithms used. This constrains what networks and what combinations of networks can run on a given inference platform. This is particularly important for systems where multiple networks are needed, and memory resources are limited such as cascading multi-class detection networks used in intelligent video analytics and multi-camera, multi-network autonomous driving systems.

Alternatives to using TensorRT include:
• Using the training framework itself to perform inference.

• Writing a custom application that is designed specifically to execute the network using low-level libraries and math operations.

Using the training framework to perform inference is easy but tends to result in much lower performance on a given GPU than would be possible with an optimized solution like TensorRT. Training frameworks tend to implement more general purpose code which stress generality, and when they are optimized, the optimizations tend to focus on efficient training.

Higher efficiency can be obtained by writing a custom application just to execute a neural network; however, it can be quite labor-intensive and require specialized knowledge to reach a high level of performance on a modern GPU. Furthermore, optimizations that work on one GPU cannot translate fully to other GPUs in the same family, and each generation of GPU can introduce new capabilities that can only be leveraged by writing new code.

TensorRT solves these problems by combining a high-level API that abstracts away specific hardware details and an implementation that optimizes inference for high throughput, low latency, and a low device-memory footprint.

### 1.1.1. Who Can Benefit From TensorRT

TensorRT is intended for use by engineers who are responsible for building features and applications based on new or existing deep learning models or deploying models into production environments. These deployments might be into servers in a data center or cloud, in an embedded device, robot or vehicle, or application software that runs on your workstations.
TensorRT has been used successfully across a wide range of scenarios, including:
Robots

Companies sell robots using TensorRT to run various kinds of computer vision models to autonomously guide an unmanned aerial system flying in dynamic environments.

Autonomous Vehicles

TensorRT is used to power computer vision in the NVIDIA DRIVE products.

Scientific and Technical Computing

A popular technical computing package embeds TensorRT to enable high throughput execution of neural network models.

Deep Learning Training and Deployment Frameworks

TensorRT is included in several popular Deep Learning Frameworks, including TensorFlow and MXNet. For TensorFlow and MXNet container release notes. Refer to TensorFlow Release Notes and MXNet Release Notes.

Video Analytics

TensorRT is used in NVIDIA’s DeepStream product to power sophisticated video analytics solutions both at the edge with 1 - 16 camera feeds and in the data center where hundreds or even thousands of video feeds might come together.

Automatic Speech Recognition

TensorRT is used to power speech recognition on a small tabletop/desktop device. A limited vocabulary is supported on the device with a larger vocabulary speech recognition system available in the cloud.

### 1.2. Where Does TensorRT Fit?

Generally, the workflow for developing and deploying a deep learning model goes through three phases.
• Phase 1 is training

• Phase 2 is developing a deployment solution, and

• Phase 3 is the deployment of that solution

### Phase 1: Training

During the training phase, start with a statement of the problem that you want to solve and decide on the precise inputs, outputs, and loss function that you’ll use. Collect, curate, augment, and probably label the training, test, and validation data sets. Then, design the structure of the network and train the model. During training, monitor the learning process, which can provide feedback that causes you to revise the loss function, acquire, or augment the training data. At the end of this process, validate the model performance and save the trained model. Training and validation are usually done using DGX-1, Titan, or Tesla data center GPUs.

TensorRT is generally not used during any part of the training phase.

### Phase 2: Developing A Deployment Solution

During the second phase, start with the trained model and create and validate a deployment solution using this trained model. Breaking this phase down into steps, you get:
1. Think about how the neural network functions within the larger system that is a part of. With that in mind, design and implement an appropriate solution. The range of systems that might incorporate neural networks is tremendously diverse. Examples include:
• the autonomous driving system in a vehicle

• a video security system on a public venue or corporate campus

• the speech interface to a consumer device

• an industrial production line automated quality assurance system

• an online retail system providing product recommendations, or

• a consumer web service offering entertaining filters users can apply to uploaded images.

Determine what your priorities are. Given the diversity of different systems that you could implement, there are a lot of things that should be considered for designing and implementing the deployment architecture.
• Do you have a single network or many networks? For example, are you developing a feature or system that is based on a single network (face detection), nor will your system be a mixture or cascade of different models or perhaps a more general facility that serves up a collection model that can be provided by the end-user?

• What device or compute element will you use to run the network? CPU, GPU, other, or a mixture? If the model is going to run on a GPU, is it a single type of GPU, or do you need to design an application that can run on a variety of GPUs?

• How is data going to get to the models? What is the data pipeline? Is the data coming in from a camera or sensor, from a series of files, or being uploaded over a network connection?

• What pre-processing will be done? What format will the data come in? If it is an image, does it need to be cropped, rotated? If it is text, what character set is it, and are all characters allowed as inputs to the model? Are there any special tokens?

• What latency and throughput requirements will you have?

• Will you be able to batch together multiple requests?

• Will you need multiple instances of a single network to achieve the required overall system throughput and latency?

• What will you do with the output of the network?

• What post-processing steps are needed?

TensorRT provides a fast, modular, robust, reliable inference engine that can support the inference needs within the deployment architecture.

2. After you define the architecture of your inference solution, by which you determine what your priorities are, you then build an inference engine from the saved network using TensorRT. There are a number of ways to do this depending on the training framework used and the network architecture. Generally, this means you need to take the saved neural network and parse it from its saved format into TensorRT using the ONNX parser (see left side of Figure 2).
Figure 2. ONNX Workflow V1

3. After the network is parsed, consider your optimization options -- batch size, workspace size, mixed precision, and bounds on dynamic shapes. These options are chosen and specified as part of the TensorRT build step, where you build an optimized inference engine based on your network. Subsequent sections of this guide provide detailed instructions and numerous examples on this part of the workflow, parsing your model into TensorRT and choosing the optimization parameters (refer to Figure 2).
4. After you’ve created an inference engine using TensorRT, you’ll want to validate that it reproduces the results of the model as measured during the training process. If you have chosen FP32 or FP16, it should match the results quite closely. If you have chosen INT8, there can be a small gap between the accuracy achieved during training and the inference accuracy.
5. Write out the inference engine in a serialized format. This is also called a plan file.

### Phase 3: Deploying A Solution

The TensorRT library is linked to the deployment application, which calls into the library when it wants an inference result. To initialize the inference engine, the application first deserializes the model from the plan file into an inference engine.

TensorRT is usually used asynchronously; therefore, when the input data arrives, the program calls an enqueue function with the input buffer and the buffer in which TensorRT should put the result.

### 1.3. How Does TensorRT Work?

To optimize your model for inference, TensorRT takes your network definition, performs network-specific and platform-specific optimizations, and generates the inference engine. This process is referred to as the build phase. The build phase can take considerable time, especially when running on embedded platforms. Therefore, a typical application builds an engine once and then serializes it as a plan file for later use.
Note: The generated plan files are not portable across platforms or TensorRT versions and are specific to the exact GPU model they were built on.

The build phase optimizes the network graph by eliminating dead computations, folding constants, and reordering and combining operations to run more efficiently on the GPU.

The builder can also be configured to reduce the precision of computations. It can automatically reduce 32-bit floating-point calculations to 16-bit and supports quantization of floating-point values so that calculations can be performed using 8-bit integers. Quantization requires dynamic range information, which can be provided by the application, or calculated by TensorRT using representative network inputs, a process called calibration. The build phase also runs multiple implementations of operators to find those which, when combined with any intermediate precision conversions and layout transformations, yield the fastest overall implementation of the network.

For more information, refer to Working With Mixed Precision.

### 1.4. What Capabilities Does TensorRT Provide?

TensorRT enables developers to import, calibrate, optimize, and deploy deep learning models. Models can be imported from frameworks like TensorFlow and PyTorch via the ONNX format. They can also be created programmatically by instantiating individual layers and setting parameters and weights directly.

TensorRT provides a C++ implementation on all supported platforms and a Python implementation on Linux. Python is not currently supported on Windows or QNX.

The key interfaces in the TensorRT core library are:
Network Definition

The Network Definition interface provides methods for the application to define a network. Input and output tensors can be specified, and layers can be added and configured. As well as layer types, such as convolutional and recurrent layers, a Plugin layer type allows the application to implement functionality not natively supported by TensorRT. For more information, refer to the Network Definition API.

Optimization Profile

An optimization profile specifies constraints on dynamic dimensions. For more information, refer to the Optimization Profile API and Working With Dynamic Shapes sections.

Builder Configuration

The Builder Configuration interface specifies details for creating an engine. It allows the application to specify optimization profiles, maximum workspace size, the minimum acceptable level of precision, timing iteration counts for autotuning, and an interface for quantizing networks to run in 8-bit precision. For more information, refer to the Builder Config API.

Builder

The Builder interface allows the creation of an optimized engine from a network definition and a builder configuration. For more information, refer to the Builder API.

Engine

The Engine interface allows the application to execute inference. It supports synchronous and asynchronous execution, profiling, and enumeration, and querying of the bindings for the engine inputs and outputs. A single-engine can have multiple execution contexts, allowing a single set of trained parameters to be used for the simultaneous execution of multiple inferences. For more information, refer to the Engine API.

ONNX Parser

This parser can be used to parse an ONNX model. For more details, refer to the C++ ONNX Parser or the Python ONNX Parser.

Note: Additionally, some TensorRT ONNX parsers and plugins can be found on GitHub.
C++ API vs. Python API
In theory, the C++ API and the Python API should be close to identical in supporting your needs. The C++ API should be used in any performance-critical scenarios, as well as in situations where safety is important, for example, in automotive.

The main benefit of the Python API is that data preprocessing and postprocessing are easy to use because you’re able to use a variety of libraries like NumPy and SciPy. For more information about the Python API, refer to Using The Python API.

### 1.5. How Do I Get TensorRT?

To get started with TensorRT, we recommend that you start with the TensorRT Quick Start Guide. The TensorRT Quick Start Guide is for users who want to try out TensorRT SDK; specifically, you'll learn how to quickly construct an application to run inference on a TensorRT engine.

If you’re already familiar with TensorRT or you’re looking for specific installation instructions, refer to the TensorRT Installation Guide.

### 1.6. Versioning

TensorRT version number (MAJOR.MINOR.PATCH) follows Semantic Versioning 2.0.0 for its public APIs and library ABIs. Version numbers change as follows:
1. MAJOR version when making incompatible API or ABI changes changes
2. MINOR version when adding functionality in a backward-compatible manner
3. PATCH version when making backward-compatible bug fixes

Note that semantic versioning does not extend to serialized objects, specifically plan files and timing caches, which are not currently compatible across TensorRT versions.

### 1.7. Deprecation Policy

Deprecation is used to inform developers that some APIs and tools are no longer recommended for use. TensorRT has the following deprecation policy:.
• This policy comes into effect beginning with TensorRT 8.0.
• Deprecation notices are communicated in the release notes. Deprecated API elements are marked with the TRT_DEPRECATED macro where possible.
• TensorRT provides a 12-month migration period after the deprecation. For any APIs and tools deprecated in TensorRT 7.x, the 12-month migration period starts from the TensorRT 8.0 GA release date.
• APIs and tools continue to work during the migration period.
• After the migration period ends, we reserve the right to remove the APIs and tools in a future release.

## 2. Using The C++ API

The following sections highlight the NVIDIA® TensorRT™ user goals and tasks that you can perform using the C++ API. Further details are provided in the Samples Support Guide.
The assumption is that you are starting with a trained model. This chapter covers the following necessary steps in using TensorRT:
• Creating a TensorRT network definition from your model.

• Invoking the TensorRT builder to create an optimized runtime engine from the network.

• Serializing and deserializing the engine so that it can be rapidly recreated at runtime.

• Feeding the engine with data to perform inference.

### 2.1. Instantiating TensorRT Objects in C++

In order to run inference, use the interface IExecutionContext. In order to create an object of type IExecutionContext, first, create an object of type ICudaEngine (the engine).
Create an engine in one of two ways:
• Via the network definition from the user model. In this case, the engine can be optionally serialized and saved for later use.

• By reading a serialized engine from the disk. This can save significant time compared to creating a network definition and building an engine from it.

Create a global object of type ILogger. It is a required argument to various methods of TensorRT API. Here is an example demonstrating the creation of the logger:
class Logger : public ILogger
{
void log(Severity severity, const char* msg) override
{
// suppress info-level messages
if (severity != Severity::kINFO)
std::cout << msg << std::endl;
}
} gLogger;


Use the TensorRT API stand-alone function createInferBuilder(gLogger) to create an object of type IBuilder. For more information, refer to IBuilder class reference.

Use method IBuilder::createNetworkV2 to create an object of type INetworkDefinition.

Create an ONNX parser using the INetwork definition as the input:
auto parser = nvonnxparser::createParser(*network, gLogger);

Call method IParser::parse() to read the model file and populate the TensorRT network.

Call method IBuilder::buildSerializedNetwork() to create a serialized ICudaEngine.

The engine can be deserialized with IRuntime::deserializeCudaEngine().

Create and use an execution context to perform inference.

If the serialized engine is preserved and saved to a file, you can bypass most of the previously described steps.

Use the TensorRT API stand-alone function createInferRuntime(gLogger) to create an object of type IRuntime.

Create an engine by calling the method IRuntime::deserializeCudaEngine(). For more information about the TensorRT runtime, refer to the reference IRuntime.

The rest of the inference is identical for whether the engine was directly built from a network or deserialized from a file.

Even though it is possible to avoid creating the CUDA context (the default context is created for you), it is not advisable. It is recommended to create and configure the CUDA context before creating a runtime or builder object.

The builder or runtime is created with the GPU context associated with the creating thread. Although a default context is created if it does not already exist, it is advisable to create and configure the CUDA context before creating a runtime or builder object.

### 2.2. Creating A Network Definition In C++

The first step in performing inference with TensorRT is to create a TensorRT network from your model.

The easiest way to achieve this is to import the model using the TensorRT parser library, which supports serialized models in the ONNX format. For more information, refer to the “Hello World” For TensorRT From ONNX (sampleOnnxMNIST) sample located in the GitHub repository.

An alternative is to define the model directly using the TensorRT API. This requires you to make a small number of API calls to define each layer in the network graph and to implement your own import mechanism for the model’s trained parameters.

In either case, you’ll explicitly need to tell TensorRT which tensors are required as outputs of inference. Tensors that are not marked as outputs are considered to be transient values that can be optimized away by the builder. There is no restriction on the number of output tensors; however, marking a tensor as the output can prohibit some optimizations on that tensor.

Inputs and output tensors must also be given names (using ITensor::setName()). At inference time, supply the engine with an array of pointers to input and output buffers. In order to determine in which order the engine expects these pointers, you can query using the tensor names.

An important aspect of a TensorRT network definition is that it contains pointers to model weights, which are copied into the optimized engine by the builder. If a network was created via a parser, the parser owns the memory occupied by the weights, and so the parser object should not be deleted until after the builder has run.

### 2.2.1. Creating A Network Definition From Scratch Using The C++ API

Instead of using a parser, you can also define the network directly to TensorRT via the network definition API. This scenario assumes that the per-layer weights are ready in host memory to pass to TensorRT during the network creation.

In the following example, we'll create a simple network with Input, Convolution, Pooling, FullyConnected, Activation, and SoftMax layers. To view the code in totality, refer to Building A Simple MNIST Network Layer By Layer (sampleMNISTAPI) located in the opensource/sampleMNISTAPI directory in the GitHub repository.

#### Procedure

1. Create the builder and the network:
IBuilder* builder = createInferBuilder(gLogger);
INetworkDefinition* network = builder->createNetworkV2(1U << static_cast<uint32_t>(NetworkDefinitionCreationFlag::kEXPLICIT_BATCH));

2. Add the Input layer to the network, with the input dimensions, including dynamic batch. A network can have multiple inputs, although in this sample there is only one:
auto data = network->addInput(INPUT_BLOB_NAME, dt, Dims3{-1, 1, INPUT_H, INPUT_W});

3. Add the Convolution layer with hidden layer input nodes, strides and weights for filter and bias. In order to retrieve the tensor reference from the layer, we can use:
auto conv1 = network->addConvolution(*data->getOutput(0), 20, DimsHW{5, 5}, weightMap["conv1filter"], weightMap["conv1bias"]);
conv1->setStride(DimsHW{1, 1});
Note: Weights passed to TensorRT layers are in host memory.
4. Add the Pooling layer:
auto pool1 = network->addPooling(*conv1->getOutput(0), PoolingType::kMAX, DimsHW{2, 2});
pool1->setStride(DimsHW{2, 2});
5. Add the FullyConnected and Activation layers:
auto ip1 = network->addFullyConnected(*pool1->getOutput(0), 500, weightMap["ip1filter"], weightMap["ip1bias"]);
auto relu1 = network->addActivation(*ip1->getOutput(0), ActivationType::kRELU);

6. Add the SoftMax layer to calculate the final probabilities and set it as the output:
auto prob = network->addSoftMax(*relu1->getOutput(0));
prob->getOutput(0)->setName(OUTPUT_BLOB_NAME);
7. Mark the output:
network->markOutput(*prob->getOutput(0));


### 2.2.2. Importing An ONNX Model Using The C++ Parser API

The following steps illustrate how to import an ONNX model using the C++ Parser API.
Note:
• When using the ONNX parser, recall that the parser has ownership of the weights required for the network. Ensure that the parser is not destroyed until after the builder has run.
• In general, the newer version of the ONNX Parser is designed to be backward compatible up to opset 7. There could be some exceptions when the changes were not backward compatible. In this case, convert the earlier ONNX model file into a later supported version. For more information on this subject, refer to ONNX Model Opset Version Converter.

It is also possible that the user model was generated by an exporting tool supporting later opsets than supported by the ONNX parser shipped with TensorRT. In this case, check whether the latest version of TensorRT released to GitHub, onnx-tensorrt, supports the required version. The supported version is defined by the BACKEND_OPSET_VERSION variable in onnx_trt_backend.cpp. Download and build the latest version of ONNX TensorRT Parser from GitHub. The instructions for building can be found here: TensorRT backend for ONNX.

For more information about the ONNX import, refer to "Hello World" For TensorRT From ONNX (sampleOnnxMNIST) located in the GitHub repository.
Note: Since TensorRT 7.0, the ONNX parser only supports full-dimensions mode, meaning that your network definition must be created with the explicitBatch flag set. For more information, refer to Working With Dynamic Shapes.

#### Procedure

1. Create the builder and network.
IBuilder* builder = createInferBuilder(gLogger);
const auto explicitBatch = 1U << static_cast<uint32_t>(NetworkDefinitionCreationFlag::kEXPLICIT_BATCH);
INetworkDefinition* network = builder->createNetworkV2(explicitBatch);

2. Create the ONNX parser:
nvonnxparser::IParser* parser =
nvonnxparser::createParser(*network, gLogger);

For more information, refer to the NvOnnxParser.h file.

3. Parse the model:
parser->parseFromFile(onnx_filename, ILogger::Severity::kWARNING);
for (int i = 0; i < parser.getNbErrors(); ++i)
{
std::cout << parser->getError(i)->desc() << std::endl;
}


### 2.3. Building An Engine In C++

The next step is to invoke the TensorRT builder to create an optimized runtime. One of the functions of the builder is to search through its catalog of CUDA kernels for the fastest implementation available, and thus it is necessary to use the same GPU for building like that on which the optimized engine runs.

The IBuilderConfig has many properties that you can set in order to control such things as the precision at which the network should run, and autotuning parameters such as how many times TensorRT should time each kernel when ascertaining which is fastest (more iterations lead to longer runtimes, but less susceptibility to noise.) You can also query the builder to find out what reduced precision types are natively supported by the hardware.

One particularly important property is the maximum workspace size. Layer algorithms often require a temporary workspace. This parameter limits the maximum size that any layer in the network can use. If an insufficient scratch is provided, it is possible that TensorRT cannot be able to find an implementation for a given layer.

### Procedure

1. Build the engine using the builder object:
IBuilderConfig* config = builder->createBuilderConfig();
config->setMaxWorkspaceSize(1 << 20);
ICudaEngine* engine = builder->buildEngineWithConfig(*network, *config);


When the engine is built, TensorRT makes copies of the weights.

2. Dispense with the network, builder, and parser if using one.
parser->destroy();
network->destroy();
config->destroy();
builder->destroy();

### 2.3.1. Builder Layer Timing Cache

Building an engine can be time-consuming since the builder needs to time candidate kernels for every layer. To reduce the builder time, TensorRT sets up a layer timing cache to keep the layer profiling information during the builder phase.

If there are other layers with the same input/output tensor configuration and layer parameters, then the TensorRT builder skips profiling and reuses the cached result for the repeated layers.

Starting in TensorRT 8.0, the timing cache can be serialized and loaded by builder instances running on devices with the same CUDA device property and CUDA/TensorRT versions.

A global timing cache can be created by IBuilderConfig. To load from a serialized cache file, the data pointer and size of the file must be provided. Setting the file size to 0 creates a new empty timing cache:
IBuilderConfig* config = builder->createBuilderConfig();
ITimingCache* cache = config->createTimingCache(cacheFile.data(), cacheFile.size());

The global timing cache needs to be attached to an IBuilderConfig before launching the builder instance. Sharing cache across devices with different CUDA device properties can lead to functional/performance issues. The suggestion is to do this only when the devices are of the same device model but different universally unique identifier (UUID). However, the loaded cache must be generated by the same version of TensorRT as the current builder instance.
config->setTimingCache(*cache, false);
The builder can load layer profiling entries from cache and add new entries to it. The ITimingCache object can be attached to other builder instances or serialized to IHostMemory.
IHostMemory* serializedCache = cache->serialize();
If there is no global timing cache attached to a builder instance, the builder creates its own local cache and destroys it when the builder is done. The global/local cache can be turned off by setting the builder flag.
...
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kDISABLE_TIMING_CACHE);


When building an engine with AlgorithmSelector, the layer timing cache needs to be disabled; therefore, ensure you turn off cache.

### 2.4. Serializing A Model In C++

It is not absolutely necessary to serialize and deserialize a model before using it for inference – if desirable, the engine object can be used for inference directly.

To serialize, you are transforming the engine into a format to store and use at a later time for inference. To use for inference, you would simply deserialize the engine. Serializing and deserializing are optional. Since creating an engine from the Network Definition can be time consuming, you could avoid rebuilding the engine every time the application reruns by serializing it once and deserializing it while running inference. Therefore, after the engine is built, users typically want to serialize it for later use.

Note: Serialized engines are not portable across platforms or TensorRT versions. Engines are specific to the exact GPU model they were built on (in addition to the platforms and the TensorRT version).

### Procedure

1. Run the builder as a prior offline step and then serialize:
IHostMemory *serializedModel = engine->serialize();
// store model to disk
// <…>
serializedModel->destroy();

2. Create a runtime object to deserialize:
IRuntime* runtime = createInferRuntime(gLogger);
ICudaEngine* engine = runtime->deserializeCudaEngine(modelData, modelSize, nullptr);


The final argument is not used anymore and must be a nullptr. For more information, refer to Extending TensorRT With Custom Layers.

### 2.5. Performing Inference In C++

The following steps illustrate how to perform inference in C++ now that you have an engine.

### Procedure

1. Create some space to store intermediate activation values. Since the engine holds the network definition and trained parameters, additional space is necessary. These are held in an execution context:
IExecutionContext *context = engine->createExecutionContext();

An engine can have multiple execution contexts, allowing one set of weights to be used for multiple overlapping inference tasks. For example, you can process images in parallel CUDA streams using one engine and one context per stream. Each context is created on the same GPU as the engine.

For more information, refer to setBindingDimension() and setOptimizationProfile() for dynamic shape models.

2. Use the input and output blob names to get the corresponding input and output index:
int inputIndex = engine->getBindingIndex(INPUT_BLOB_NAME);
int outputIndex = engine->getBindingIndex(OUTPUT_BLOB_NAME);

3. Using these indices, set up a buffer array pointing to the input and output buffers on the GPU:
void* buffers[2];
buffers[inputIndex] = inputBuffer;
buffers[outputIndex] = outputBuffer;

4. TensorRT execution is typically asynchronous, so enqueue the kernels on a CUDA stream:
context->enqueueV2(buffers, stream, nullptr);

It is common to enqueue asynchronous memcpy() before and after the kernels to move data from the GPU if it is not already there. The final argument to enqueueV2() is an optional CUDA event that is signaled when the input buffers have been consumed, and their memory can be safely reused.

To determine when the kernel (and possibly memcpy()) are complete, use standard CUDA synchronization mechanisms such as events or waiting on the stream.

For more information, refer to enqueue() for implicit batch networks and enqueueV2() for explicit batch networks. In the event that asynchronous is not wanted, see execute() and executeV2().

The IExecutionContext contains shared resources; therefore, calling enqueue or enqueueV2 in from the same IExecutionContext object with different CUDA streams concurrently results in undefined behavior. To perform inference concurrently in multiple CUDA streams, use one IExecutionContext per CUDA stream.

### 2.6. Memory Management In C++

TensorRT provides two mechanisms to allow the application of more control over device memory.

By default, when creating an IExecutionContext, persistent device memory is allocated to hold activation data. To avoid this allocation, call createExecutionContextWithoutDeviceMemory. It is then the application’s responsibility to call IExecutionContext::setDeviceMemory() to provide the required memory to run the network. The size of the memory block is returned by ICudaEngine::getDeviceMemorySize().

In addition, the application can supply a custom allocator for use during build and runtime by implementing the IGpuAllocator interface. This is useful if your application wishes to control all GPU memory and sub-allocate to TensorRT instead of having TensorRT allocate directly from CUDA.

Once the interface is implemented, call setGpuAllocator(&allocator); on the IBuilder or IRuntime interfaces. All device memory is then allocated and freed through this interface.

### 2.7. Refitting An Engine

TensorRT can refit an engine with new weights without having to rebuild it. The engine must be built as “refittable.” Because of the way the engine is optimized, if you change some weights, you might have to supply some other weights too. The interface can tell you what additional weights need to be supplied.

### Procedure

1. Request a refittable engine before building it:
...
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kREFIT)
builder->buildEngineWithConfig(network, config);

2. Create a refitter object:
ICudaEngine* engine = ...;
IRefitter* refitter = createInferRefitter(*engine,gLogger)

3. Update the weights that you want to update. For example, to update the kernel weights for a convolution layer named “MyLayer”:
Weights newWeights = ...;
refitter->setWeights("MyLayer",WeightsRole::kKERNEL,
newWeights);


The new weights should have the same count as the original weights used to build the engine.

setWeights returns are false if something went wrong, such as a wrong layer name or role or a change in the weights count.

Alternatively, update the weights via setNamedWeights and setWeights after building the engine from ONNX models or calling INetworkDefinition::setWeightsName() explicitly. For example, to update weights called MyWeights:
Weights newWeights = ...;
refitter->setNamedWeights("MyWeights", newWeights);


setNamedWeights and setWeights can be used at the same time, i.e., you can update weights with names via setNamedWeights and update those unnamed weights via setWeights.

4. Find out what other weights must be supplied. This typically requires two calls to IRefitter::getMissing, first to get the number of Weights objects that must be supplied, and second to get their layers and roles.
const int n = refitter->getMissing(0, nullptr, nullptr);
std::vector<const char*> layerNames(n);
std::vector<WeightsRole> weightsRoles(n);
refitter->getMissing(n, layerNames.data(),
weightsRoles.data());

Alternatively, to get the names of all missing weights, run:
const int n = refitter->getMissingWeights(0, nullptr);
std::vector<const char*> weightsNames(n);
refitter->getMissingWeights(n, weightsNames.data());

5. Supply the missing weights, in any order:
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
refitter->setWeights(layerNames[i], weightsRoles[i],
Weights{...});


Supplying only the missing weights does not generate a need for any more weights. Supplying any additional weights can trigger the need for yet more weights.

6. Update the engine with all the weights that are provided:
bool success = refitter->refitCudaEngine();
assert(success);


If success is false, check the log for a diagnostic, perhaps about weights that are still missing.

7. Destroy the refitter:
refitter->destroy();

### Results

The updated engine behaves as if it had been built from a network updated with the new weights.

To view all refittable weights in an engine, use refitter->getAll(...) or refitter->getAllWeights(...); similarly to how getMissing and getMissingWeights were used in step 3.

### 2.8. Algorithm Selection

TensorRT provides a mechanism to control the algorithm selection for different layers in a network. The default behavior of TensorRT is to choose the algorithms that globally minimize the execution time of the engine. IAlgorithmSelector
The application can supply a custom algorithm selector for use during engine build by implementing the IAlgorithmSelector interface. Once the interface is implemented, call:
config.setAlgorithmSelector(&selector);

where config is the createBuilderConfig that is passed to IBuilder::createBuilderConfig to build the engine and selector is an instance of your class derived from IAlgorithmSelector.

### IAlgorithmSelector::selectAlgorithms

This method lets the application guide algorithm selection. The method is given the algorithm context for a layer and a list of IAlgorithm choices applicable to that context. You can use your override of this method to indicate which choices TensorRT should consider, based on whatever heuristic you like, or return all the choices if TensorRT should do all the choosing.

The choices returned from selectAlgorithm restrict the range of algorithms allowed for some layers. The builder does global minimization with the allowed choices. If no choice is returned, TensorRT falls back to its default behavior. You can unset BuilderFlag::kSTRICT_TYPES to avoid this fallback and get an error if the override returns an empty list. If the override returns a single choice, it’s guaranteed to be used.

### IAlgorithmSelector::reportAlgorithms

The override reportAlgorithms can be used to record the final choices made by TensorRT for each layer. TensorRT invokes reportAlgorithms after all calls to selectAlgorithms, for a given optimization profile. To replay choices from an earlier build in a later build, make method selectAlgorithms return the same choices that method reportAlgorithms reported for the earlier build, as described in the Determinism And Reproducibility In The Builder section.

Note:
• The notion of a “layer” in Algorithm Selection is different from ILayer in INetworkDefinition. The “layer” in the former can be equivalent to a conglomeration of multiple ILayer due to fusion optimizations.
• Picking the fastest algorithm in selectAlgorithms cannot get the best performance for the overall network. TensorRT optimizes for minimum timing of the whole network, possibly departing from locally greedy choices in exchange for less reformatting overhead.
• The timing of an IAlgorithm is 0 in selectAlgorithms if TensorRT found that layer to be a no-op.
• Method reportAlgorithms doesn’t provide timing and workspace requirements of an IAlgorithm. Method selectAlgorithms can be used to query that information.
• The sequence of IAlgorithmContext and IAlgorithm, as well as the timing for each IAlgorithm, cannot be the same for each build.

### 2.8.1. Determinism And Reproducibility In The Builder

The default behavior of TensorRT is to choose layer implementations that globally minimize the execution time of the engine.

Trial execution times for an algorithm are almost never identical; however, if two algorithms have similar timings, the same algorithm cannot turn out to be faster every time. As a consequence, the algorithm selected by TensorRT can be different for every build, even if the network and build config is unchanged.

However, Algorithm Selection API can be used to build TensorRT engines deterministically. For more information, refer to Algorithm Selection. The method IAlgorithmSelector::selectAlgorithms lets you select the algorithm for a layer from a list of choices. By always returning the same choice, you can force deterministic choice for that layer.

IAlgorithmSelector also lets you reproduce the same implementations. IAlgorithmSelector::reportAlgorithms can be used to cache the algorithm choices made by TensorRT, based on the default behavior or rule set by selectAlgorithms. selectAlgorithms can then be used to choose the algorithms recorded in this cache. If you return the same algorithm choice for each combination of layerName, implementation, tactic, and input/output formats, then you'll always get the same engine.

Class sampleAlgorithmSelector demonstrates how to use the algorithm selector to achieve determinism and reproducibility in the builder.

## 3. Using The Python API

The following sections highlight the NVIDIA® TensorRT™ user goals and tasks that you can perform using the Python API.

These sections focus on using the Python API without any frameworks. Further details are provided in the Samples Support Guide.

The assumption is that you are starting with a trained model. This chapter covers the following necessary steps in using TensorRT:
• Creating a TensorRT network definition from your model

• Invoking the TensorRT builder to create an optimized runtime engine from the network

• Serializing and deserializing the engine so that it can be rapidly recreated at runtime

• Feeding the engine with data to perform inference

## Python API vs. C++ API

In essence, the C++ API and the Python API should be close to identical in supporting your needs. The main benefit of the Python API is that data preprocessing and postprocessing are easy to use because you’re able to use a variety of libraries like NumPy and SciPy.

The C++ API should be used in situations where safety is important, for example, in automotive. For more information about the C++ API, refer to Using The C++ API.

For more information about how to optimize performance using Python, refer to How Do I Optimize My Python Performance? from the TensorRT Best Practices guide.

### Procedure

1. Import TensorRT:
import tensorrt as trt
2. Implement a logging interface through which TensorRT reports errors, warnings, and informational messages. The following code shows how to implement the logging interface. In this case, we have suppressed informational messages and report only warnings and errors. There is a simple logger included in the TensorRT Python bindings.
TRT_LOGGER = trt.Logger(trt.Logger.WARNING)

### 3.2. Creating A Network Definition In Python

The first step in performing inference with TensorRT is to create a TensorRT network from your model.

The easiest way to achieve this is to import the model using the TensorRT parser library (refer to Importing A Model Using A Parser In Python and Importing From ONNX Using Python), which supports serialized models in ONNX releases up to ONNX 1.6, and ONNX opsets 7 to 11.

An alternative is to define the model directly using the TensorRT Network API, (refer to Creating A Network Definition From Scratch Using The Python API). This requires you to make a small number of API calls to define each layer in the network graph and to implement your own import mechanism for the model’s trained parameters.

Note: The TensorRT Python API is not available for all platforms. For more information, refer to TensorRT Support Matrix.

### 3.2.1. Creating A Network Definition From Scratch Using The Python API

When creating a network, you must first define the engine and create a builder object for inference. The Python API is used to create a network and engine from the Network APIs. The network definition reference is used to add various layers to the network.

For more information about using the Python API to create a network and engine, refer to the "Hello World" For TensorRT Using PyTorch And Python (network_api_pytorch_mnist) sample.

The following code illustrates how to create a simple network with Input, Convolution, Pooling, FullyConnected, Activation, and SoftMax layers.

# Create the builder and network
with trt.Builder(TRT_LOGGER) as builder, builder.create_network() as network:
# Configure the network layers based on the weights provided. In this case, the weights are imported from a pytorch model.
# Add an input layer. The name is a string, dtype is a TensorRT dtype, and the shape can be provided as either a list or tuple.
input_tensor = network.add_input(name=INPUT_NAME, dtype=trt.float32, shape=INPUT_SHAPE)

# Add a convolution layer
conv1_w = weights['conv1.weight'].numpy()
conv1_b = weights['conv1.bias'].numpy()
conv1 = network.add_convolution(input=input_tensor, num_output_maps=20, kernel_shape=(5, 5), kernel=conv1_w, bias=conv1_b)
conv1.stride = (1, 1)

pool1 = network.add_pooling(input=conv1.get_output(0), type=trt.PoolingType.MAX, window_size=(2, 2))
pool1.stride = (2, 2)
conv2_w = weights['conv2.weight'].numpy()
conv2_b = weights['conv2.bias'].numpy()
conv2 = network.add_convolution(pool1.get_output(0), 50, (5, 5), conv2_w, conv2_b)
conv2.stride = (1, 1)

pool2 = network.add_pooling(conv2.get_output(0), trt.PoolingType.MAX, (2, 2))
pool2.stride = (2, 2)

fc1_w = weights['fc1.weight'].numpy()
fc1_b = weights['fc1.bias'].numpy()
fc1 = network.add_fully_connected(input=pool2.get_output(0), num_outputs=500, kernel=fc1_w, bias=fc1_b)

relu1 = network.add_activation(fc1.get_output(0), trt.ActivationType.RELU)

fc2_w = weights['fc2.weight'].numpy()
fc2_b = weights['fc2.bias'].numpy()
fc2 = network.add_fully_connected(relu1.get_output(0), OUTPUT_SIZE, fc2_w, fc2_b)

fc2.get_output(0).name =OUTPUT_NAME
network.mark_output(fc2.get_output(0))


### 3.2.2. Importing A Model Using A Parser In Python

To import a model using a parser, perform the following high-level steps:
1. Create the TensorRTbuilder and network.
2. Create the TensorRT parser for the specific format.
3. Use the parser to parse the imported model and populate the network.
For step-by-step instructions, refer to Importing From ONNX Using Python.

The builder must be created before the network because it serves as a factory for the network. Different parsers have different mechanisms for marking network outputs. For more information, refer to the ONNX Parser API.

### 3.2.3. Importing From ONNX Using Python

The following steps illustrate how to import an ONNX model directly using the OnnxParser and the Python API.

For more information, refer to the Introduction To Importing TensorFlow And ONNX Models Into TensorRT Using Python (introductory_parser_samples) sample.

Note:

In general, the newer version of the OnnxParser is designed to be backward compatible; therefore, encountering a model file produced by an earlier version of the ONNX exporter should not cause a problem. There could be some exceptions when the changes were not backward compatible. In this case, convert the earlier ONNX model file into a later supported version. For more information on this subject, refer to ONNX Model Opset Version Converter.

It is also possible that the user model was generated by an exporting tool supporting later opsets than supported by the ONNX parser shipped with TensorRT. In this case, check whether the latest version of TensorRT released to GitHub, onnx-tensorrt, supports the required version. For more information, refer to the Object Detection With The ONNX TensorRT Backend In Python (yolov3_onnx) sample.

The supported version is defined by the BACKEND_OPSET_VERSION variable in onnx_trt_backend.cpp. Download and build the latest version of ONNXTensorRT Parser from GitHub. The instructions for building can be found here: TensorRT backend for ONNX.

Since TensorRT 7.0, the ONNX parser only supports full-dimensions mode, meaning that your network definition must be created with the explicitBatch flag set. For more information, refer to Working With Dynamic Shapes.

#### Procedure

1. Import TensorRT:
import tensorrt as trt
2. Create the builder, network, and parser:
EXPLICIT_BATCH = 1 << (int)(trt.NetworkDefinitionCreationFlag.EXPLICIT_BATCH)
with trt.Builder(TRT_LOGGER) as builder, builder.create_network(EXPLICIT_BATCH) as network, trt.OnnxParser(network, TRT_LOGGER) as parser:
with open(model_path, 'rb') as model:
for error in range(parser.num_errors):
print(parser.get_error(error))


### 3.2.4. Importing From PyTorch And Other Frameworks

Using TensorRT with PyTorch (or any other framework with NumPy compatible weights) involves replicating the network architecture using the TensorRT API (refer to Creating A Network Definition From Scratch Using The Python API), and then copying the weights from PyTorch. For more information, refer to Working With PyTorch And Other Frameworks.

To perform inference, follow the instructions outlined in the Performing Inference In Python.

### 3.3. Building An Engine In Python

One of the functions of the builder is to search through its catalog of CUDA kernels for the fastest implementation available, and thus it is necessary to use the same GPU for building like that on which the optimized engine runs.

The IBuilderConfig has many properties that you can set in order to control such things as the precision at which the network should run, and autotuning parameters such as how many times TensorRT should time each kernel when ascertaining which is fastest (more iterations lead to longer runtimes, but less susceptibility to noise.) You can also query the builder to find out what mixed-precision types are natively supported by the hardware.

One particularly important property is the maximum workspace size. Layer algorithms often require a temporary workspace. This parameter limits the maximum size that any layer in the network can use. If an insufficient scratch is provided, it is possible that TensorRT cannot be able to find an implementation for a given layer.

For more information about building an engine in Python, refer to the Introduction To Importing TensorFlow And ONNX Models Into TensorRT Using Python (introductory_parser_samples) sample.

### Procedure

1. Build the engine using the builder object:
with trt.Builder(TRT_LOGGER) as builder, builder.create_builder_config() as config:
config.max_workspace_size = 1 << 20 # This determines the amount of memory available to the builder when building an optimized engine and should generally be set as high as possible.
with builder.build_engine(network, config) as engine:

# Do inference here.


When the engine is built, TensorRT makes copies of the weights.

2. Perform inference. To perform inference, follow the instructions outlined in the Performing Inference In Python.

### 3.4. Serializing A Model In Python

You can serialize the engine or you can use the engine directly for inference. Serializing and deserializing a model is an optional step before using it for inference - if desirable, the engine object can be used for inference directly.

When you serialize, you are transforming the engine into a format to store and use at a later time for inference. To use for inference, you would simply deserialize the engine. Serializing and deserializing are optional. Since creating an engine from the Network Definition can be time-consuming, you could avoid rebuilding the engine every time the application reruns by serializing it once and deserializing it while inferencing. Therefore, after the engine is built, users typically want to serialize it for later use.
Note: Serialized engines are not portable across platforms or TensorRT versions. Engines are specific to the exact GPU model they were built on (in addition to the platforms and the TensorRT version).
1. Serialize the model to a modelstream:
serialized_engine = engine.serialize()
2. Deserialize modelstream to perform inference. Deserializing requires creation of a runtime object:
with trt.Runtime(TRT_LOGGER) as runtime:    engine = runtime.deserialize_cuda_engine(serialized_engine)
It is also possible to save a serialized engine to a file and read it back from the file:
1. Serialize the engine and write to a file:
with open(“sample.engine”, “wb”) as f:
f.write(engine.serialize())
2. Read the engine from the file and deserialize:
with open(“sample.engine”, “rb”) as f, trt.Runtime(TRT_LOGGER) as runtime:


### 3.5. Performing Inference In Python

The following steps illustrate how to perform inference in Python, now that you have an engine.

### Procedure

1. Allocate some host and device buffers for inputs and outputs. This example assumes that context.all_binding_dimensions == True and that the engine has a single input at binding_index=0 and a single output at binding_index=1:
# Determine dimensions and create page-locked memory buffers (i.e. won't be swapped to disk) to hold host inputs/outputs.
h_input = cuda.pagelocked_empty(trt.volume(context.get_binding_shape(0)), dtype=np.float32)
h_output = cuda.pagelocked_empty(trt.volume(context.get_binding_shape(1)), dtype=np.float32)
# Allocate device memory for inputs and outputs.
d_input = cuda.mem_alloc(h_input.nbytes)
d_output = cuda.mem_alloc(h_output.nbytes)
# Create a stream in which to copy inputs/outputs and run inference.
stream = cuda.Stream()
2. Create some space to store intermediate activation values. Since the engine holds the network definition and trained parameters, additional space is necessary. These are held in an execution context:
with engine.create_execution_context() as context:
# Transfer input data to the GPU.
cuda.memcpy_htod_async(d_input, h_input, stream)
# Run inference.
context.execute_async_v2(bindings=[int(d_input), int(d_output)], stream_handle=stream.handle)
# Transfer predictions back from the GPU.
cuda.memcpy_dtoh_async(h_output, d_output, stream)
# Synchronize the stream
stream.synchronize()
# Return the host output.
return h_output


An engine can have multiple execution contexts, allowing one set of weights to be used for multiple overlapping inference tasks. For example, you can process images in parallel CUDA streams using one engine and one context per stream. Each context is created on the same GPU as the engine.

## 4. Extending TensorRT With Custom Layers

NVIDIA® TensorRT™ supports many types of layers and its functionality is continually extended; however, there can be cases in which the layers supported do not cater to the specific needs of a model.

In this case, users can extend TensorRT functionalities by implementing custom layers using the IPluginV2Ext class for the C++ and Python API. Custom layers, often referred to as plugins, are implemented and instantiated by an application, and their lifetime must span their use within a TensorRT engine.

### 4.1. Adding Custom Layers Using The C++ API

A custom layer is implemented by extending the class IPluginCreator and one of TensorRT’s base classes for plugins.

IPluginCreator is a creator class for custom layers using which users can get plugin name, version, and plugin field parameters. It also provides methods to create the plugin object during the network build phase and deserialize it during inference.

You must derive your plugin class from one of the base classes for plugins. They have varying expressive power with respect to supporting inputs/outputs with different types/formats or networks with dynamic shapes. The following table summarizes the base classes, ordered from least expressive to most expressive.
Table 1. Base classes, ordered from least expressive to most expressive
Introduced in TensorRT version? Mixed input/output formats/types Dynamic shapes?
IPluginV2Ext 5.1 Limited No
IPluginV2IOExt 6.0.1 General No
IPluginV2DynamicExt 6.0.1 General Yes
All of these base classes include versioning support and help enable custom layers that support other data formats besides NCHW and single precision.
Note: If using either IPluginV2Ext, IPluginV2IOExt, or IPluginV2DynamicExt, you should always provide an FP32 implementation of the plugin in order to allow the plugin to properly operate with any network.
Note: In versions of TensorRT prior to 6.0.1, you derived custom layers from IPluginV2 or IPluginV2Ext. While these APIs are still supported, we highly encourage you to move to IPluginV2IOExt or IPluginV2DynamicExt to be able to use all the new plugin functionalities.
TensorRT also provides the ability to register a plugin by calling REGISTER_TENSORRT_PLUGIN(pluginCreator) that statically registers the Plugin Creator to the Plugin Registry. During runtime, the Plugin Registry can be queried using the external function getPluginRegistry(). The Plugin Registry stores a pointer to all the registered Plugin Creators and can be used to look up a specific Plugin Creator based on the plugin name and version. TensorRT library contains plugins that can be loaded into your application. The version of all these plugins is set to 1. For a list of our open-sourced plugins, refer to GitHub: TensorRT plugins.
Note: To use TensorRT registered plugins in your application, the libnvinfer_plugin.so library must be loaded, and all plugins must be registered. This can be done by calling initLibNvInferPlugins(void* logger, const char* libNamespace)() in your application code.
Note: If you have your own plugin library, you can include a similar entry point to register all plugins in the registry under a unique namespace. This ensures there are no plugin name collisions during build time across different plugin libraries.

For more information about these plugins, refer to the NvInferPlugin.h file for reference.

Using the Plugin Creator, the IPluginCreator::createPlugin() function can be called and returns a plugin object of type IPluginV2. This object can be added to the TensorRT network using addPluginV2() that creates and adds a layer to a network and then binds the layer to the given plugin. The method also returns a pointer to the layer (of type IPluginV2Layer), which can be used to access the layer or the plugin itself (via getPlugin()).

For example, to add a plugin layer to your network with plugin name set to pluginName and version set to pluginVersion, you can issue the following:
//Use the extern function getPluginRegistry to access the global TensorRT Plugin Registry
auto creator = getPluginRegistry()->getPluginCreator(pluginName, pluginVersion);
const PluginFieldCollection* pluginFC = creator->getFieldNames();
//populate the field parameters (say layerFields) for the plugin layer
PluginFieldCollection *pluginData = parseAndFillFields(pluginFC, layerFields);
//create the plugin object using the layerName and the plugin meta data
IPluginV2 *pluginObj = creator->createPlugin(layerName, pluginData);
//add the plugin to the TensorRT network using the network API
auto layer = network.addPluginV2(&inputs[0], int(inputs.size()), pluginObj);
… (build rest of the network and serialize engine)
pluginObj->destroy() // Destroy the plugin object
… (destroy network, engine, builder)
… (free allocated pluginData)

Note:pluginData should allocate the PluginField entries on the heap before passing to createPlugin.
Note: The createPlugin method described previously creates a new plugin object on the heap and returns a pointer to it. Ensure you destroy the pluginObj, as shown previously, to avoid a memory leak.

During serialization, the TensorRT engine internally stores the plugin type, plugin version, and namespace (if it exists) for all IPluginV2 type plugins. During deserialization, this information is looked up by the TensorRT engine to find the Plugin Creator from the Plugin Registry. This enables the TensorRT engine to internally call the IPluginCreator::deserializePlugin() method. The plugin object created during deserialization is destroyed internally by the TensorRT engine by calling IPluginV2::destroy() method.

In previous versions of TensorRT, you had to implement the nvinfer1::IPluginFactory class to call the createPlugin method during deserialization. IPlugin and IPluginFactory interfaces are no longer supported starting in TensorRT 8.0 and are replaced by IPluginV2 interface.

### 4.1.1. Example: Adding A Custom Layer With Dynamic Shape Support Using C++

To support dynamic shapes, your plugin must be derived from IPluginV2DynamicExt.

BarPlugin is a plugin with two inputs and two outputs where:
• The first output is a copy of the second input

• The second output is the concatenation of both inputs, along the first dimension, and all types/formats must be the same and be linear formats

BarPlugin needs to be derived as follows:
class BarPlugin : public IPluginV2DynamicExt
{
...override virtual methods inherited from IPluginV2DynamicExt.
};


The inherited methods are all pure virtual methods, so the compiler reminds you if you forget one.

The four methods that are affected by dynamic shapes are:
• getOutputDimensions
• supportsFormatCombination
• configurePlugin
• enqueue
The override for getOutputDimensions returns symbolic expressions for the output dimensions in terms of the input dimensions. Build the expressions from the expressions for the inputs, using the IExprBuilder passed into getOutputDimensions. In the example, the dimensions of the second output are the same as the dimensions of the first input, so no new expression has to be built for case 1.
DimsExprs BarPlugin::getOutputDimensions(int outputIndex,
const DimsExprs* inputs, int nbInputs,
IExprBuilder& exprBuilder)
{
switch (outputIndex)
{
case 0:
{
// First dimension of output is sum of input
// first dimensions.
DimsExprs output(inputs[0]);
output.d[0] =
exprBuilder.operation(DimensionOperation::kSUM,
inputs[0].d[0], inputs[1].d[0]);
return output;
}
case 1:
return inputs[0];
default:
throw std::invalid_argument(“invalid output”);
}


The override for supportsFormatCombination must indicate whether a format combination is allowed. The interface indexes the inputs/outputs uniformly as “connections”, starting at 0 for the first input, then the rest of the inputs in order, followed by numbering the outputs. In the example, the inputs are connections 0 and 1, and the outputs are connections 2 and 3.

TensorRT uses supportsFormatCombination to ask whether a given combination of formats/types are okay for a connection, given formats/types for lesser indexed connections. So the override can assume that lesser indexed connections have already been vetted and focus on the connection with index pos.
bool BarPlugin::supportsFormatCombination(int pos, const PluginTensorDesc* inOut, int nbInputs, int nbOutputs) override
{
assert(0 <= pos && pos < 4);
const auto* in = inOut;
const auto* out = inOut + nbInputs;
switch (pos)
{
case 0: in[0].format == TensorFormat::kLINEAR;
case 1: return in[1].type == in[0].type &&
in[0].format == TensorFormat::kLINEAR;
case 2: return out[0].type == in[0].type &&
out[0].format == TensorFormat::kLINEAR;
case 3: return out[1].type == in[0].type &&
out[1].format == TensorFormat::kLINEAR;
}
throw std::invalid_argument(“invalid connection number”);
}

The local variables in and out here allow inspecting inOut by input or output number instead of connection number.
Important: The override inspects the format/type for a connection with an index less than pos, but must never inspect the format/type for a connection with an index greater than pos. The example uses case 3 to check connection 3 against connection 0, and not use case 0 to check connection 0 against connection 3.
TensorRT uses configurePlugin to set up a plugin at runtime. Our plugin doesn’t need configurePlugin to do anything, so it’s a no-op:
void BarPlugin::configurePlugin(
const DynamicPluginTensorDesc* in, int nbInputs,
const DynamicPluginTensorDesc* out, int nbOutputs) override
{
}


If the plugin needed to know the minimum or maximum dimensions it might encounter, it can inspect the field DynamicPluginTensorDesc::min or DynamicPluginTensorDesc::max for any input or output. Format and build-time dimension information can be found in DynamicPluginTensorDesc::desc. Any runtime dimensions appear as -1. The actual dimension is supplied to BarPlugin::enqueue.

Finally, the override BarPlugin::enqueue has to do the work. Since shapes are dynamic, enqueue is handed a PluginTensorDesc that describes the actual dimensions, type, and format of each input and output.

### 4.1.2. Example: Adding A Custom Layer With INT8 I/O Support Using C++

To support INT8 I/O, your plugin can be derived from either IPluginV2IOExt or IPluginV2DynamicExt.

The general steps are similar to Example: Adding A Custom Layer With Dynamic Shape Support Using C++, therefore the repeated parts (registry) are not repeated here.

PoolPlugin is a plugin to demonstrate how to extend INT8 I/O for the custom pooling layer. The derivation is as follows:
class PoolPlugin : public IPluginV2IOExt
{
...override virtual methods inherited from IPluginV2IOExt.
};

Most of the pure virtual methods are common to plugins. The main methods that affect INT8 I/O are:
• supportsFormatCombination
• configurePlugin
• enqueue
The override for supportsFormatCombination must indicate which INT8 I/O combination is allowed. The usage of this interface is similar to Adding A Custom Layer With Dynamic Shape Support Using C++. In this example, the supported I/O tensor format is linear CHW while INT32 is excluded, but the I/O tensor must have the same data type.
bool PoolPlugin::supportsFormatCombination(int pos, const PluginTensorDesc* inOut, int nbInputs, int nbOutputs) const override
{
assert(nbInputs == 1 && nbOutputs == 1 && pos < nbInputs + nbOutputs);
bool condition = inOut[pos].format == TensorFormat::kLINEAR;
condition &= inOut[pos].type != DataType::kINT32;
condition &= inOut[pos].type == inOut[0].type;
return condition;
}

Important:
• If INT8 auto-calibration must be used with a network with INT8 I/O plugins, the FP32 I/O variant should be supported by the plugin as it is used by the FP32 calibration graph.
• If the FP32 I/O variant is not supported or INT8 auto-calibration is not used, all required INT8 I/O tensors scales should be set explicitly.
• Auto-calibration won't generate a dynamic range for the plugin internal tensors. INT8 I/O plugins should calculate their own per-tensor dynamic range for internal tensors for the purpose of quantization or dequantization.
TensorRT invokes configurePlugin method to pass the information to the plugin through PluginTensorDesc, which are stored as member variables, serialized and deserialized.
void PoolPlugin::configurePlugin(const PluginTensorDesc* in, int nbInput, const PluginTensorDesc* out, int nbOutput)
{
...
mPoolingParams.mC = mInputDims.d[0];
mPoolingParams.mH = mInputDims.d[1];
mPoolingParams.mW = mInputDims.d[2];
mPoolingParams.mP = mOutputDims.d[1];
mPoolingParams.mQ = mOutputDims.d[2];
mInHostScale = in[0].scale >= 0.0f ? in[0].scale : -1.0f;
mOutHostScale = out[0].scale >= 0.0f ? out[0].scale : -1.0f;
}


Where INT8 I/O scales per tensor can be obtained from PluginTensorDesc::scale.

Finally, the override UffPoolPluginV2::enqueue has to do the work. It includes a collection of core algorithms to execute the custom layer at runtime by using the actual batch size, inputs, outputs, cuDNN stream, and the information configured.
int PoolPlugin::enqueue(int batchSize, const void* const* inputs, void** outputs, void* workspace, cudaStream_t stream)
{
...
CHECK(cudnnPoolingForward(mCudnn, mPoolingDesc, &kONE, mSrcDescriptor, input, &kZERO, mDstDescriptor, output));
...
return 0;
}


### 4.1.3. Example: Implementing A GELU Operator Using The C++ API

To implement a GELU operator, we need to add a group of ElementWise and Unary layers in the network.
The GELU equation is:

1. Prepare the constant value:
const float f3 = 3.0f;
const float x3Coeff = 0.044715f;
const float sqrt2OverPi = 0.7978846f;
const float f1 = 1.0f;
const float f05 = 0.5f;

2. Implement the GELU operator:
auto dim = nvinfer1::Dims3{1, 1, 1};
// y = x ^ 3
auto c3 = network->addConstant(dim, Weights{DataType::kFLOAT, &f3, 1});
auto pow1 = network->addElementWise(*x->getOutput(0), *c3->getOutput(0), ElementWiseOperation::kPOW);
// y = y * 0.044715f
auto cX3Coeff = network->addConstant(dim, Weights{DataType::kFLOAT, &x3Coeff, 1});
auto mul1 = network->addElementWise(
*pow1->getOutput(0), *cX3Coeff->getOutput(0), ElementWiseOperation::kPROD);
// y = y + x
// y = y * 0.7978846f
auto cSqrt2OverPi = network->addConstant(dim, Weights{DataType::kFLOAT, &sqrt2OverPi, 1});
// y = tanh(y)
auto tanh1 = network->addActivation(*mul2->getOutput(0), ActivationType::kTANH);
// y = y + 1
auto c1 = network->addConstant(dim, Weights{DataType::kFLOAT, &f1, 1});
// y = y * 0.5
auto c05 = network->addConstant(dim, Weights{DataType::kFLOAT, &f05, 1});
// y = y * x
auto y = network->addElementWise(*mul3->getOutput(0), *x->getOutput(0), ElementWiseOperation::kPROD);

Note: Considering that GELU is not a linear function, set the precision of every layer to FP32 when the network is set to run in INT8 mode.

For more information about layer fusion related to GELU, see the TensorRT Best Practices Guide.

### 4.2. Adding Custom Layers Using The Python API

Although the C++ API is the preferred language to implement custom layers, due to accessing libraries like CUDA and cuDNN, you can also work with custom layers in Python applications.

You can use the C++ API to create a custom layer, package the layer using pybind11 in Python, then load the plugin into a Python application. For more information, refer to Creating A Network Definition In Python.

The same custom layer implementation can be used for both C++ and Python.

### 4.2.1. Example: Adding A Custom Layer To A TensorRT Network Using Python

Custom layers can be added to any TensorRT network in Python using plugin nodes.
The Python API has a function called add_plugin_v2 that enables you to add a plugin node to a network. The following example illustrates this. It creates a simple TensorRT network and adds a Leaky ReLU plugin node by looking up TensorRT Plugin Registry.
import tensorrt as trt
import numpy as np

TRT_LOGGER = trt.Logger()

trt.init_libnvinfer_plugins(TRT_LOGGER, '')
PLUGIN_CREATORS = trt.get_plugin_registry().plugin_creator_list

def get_trt_plugin(plugin_name):
plugin = None
for plugin_creator in PLUGIN_CREATORS:
if plugin_creator.name == plugin_name:
lrelu_slope_field = trt.PluginField("neg_slope", np.array([0.1], dtype=np.float32), trt.PluginFieldType.FLOAT32)
field_collection = trt.PluginFieldCollection([lrelu_slope_field])
plugin = plugin_creator.create_plugin(name=plugin_name, field_collection=field_collection)
return plugin

def main():
builder = trt.Builder(TRT_LOGGER)
network = builder.create_network()
config = builder.create_builder_config()
config.max_workspace_size = 2**20
input_layer = network.add_input(name="input_layer", dtype=trt.float32, shape=(1, 1))
lrelu = network.add_plugin_v2(inputs=[input_layer], plugin=get_trt_plugin("LReLU_TRT"))
lrelu.get_output(0).name = "outputs"
network.mark_output(lrelu.get_output(0))

### 4.3. Using Custom Layers When Importing A Model With A Parser

The ONNX parser automatically attempts to import unrecognized nodes as plugins. If a plugin with the same op_type as the node is found in the plugin registry, the parser forwards the attributes of the node to the plugin creator as plugin field parameters in order to create the plugin. By default, the parser uses “1” as the plugin version and “” as the plugin namespace. This behavior can be overridden by setting a plugin_version and/or plugin_namespace string attribute in the corresponding ONNX node.

In some cases, you might want to modify an ONNX graph prior to importing it into TensorRT. For example, to replace a set of ops with a plugin node. To accomplish this, you can use the ONNX GraphSurgeon utility. For details on how to use ONNX-GraphSurgeon to replace a subgraph, refer to this example.

For more examples, refer to the TensorRT Inference Of ONNX Models With Custom Layers (onnx_packnet) sample.

### 4.4. Plugin API Description

All new plugins should derive classes from both IPluginCreator and one of the plugin base classes described in Adding Custom Layers Using The C++ API. In addition, new plugins should also call the REGISTER_TENSORRT_PLUGIN(...) macro to register the plugin with the TensorRT Plugin Registry or create an init function equivalent to initLibNvInferPlugins().

### 4.4.1. Migrating Plugins From TensorRT 6.x Or 7.x To TensorRT 8.x.x

While IPluginV2 and IPluginV2Ext interfaces are still supported for backward compatibility with TensorRT 5.1 and 6.0.x respectively, however, we recommend that you write new plugins or refactor existing ones to target the IPluginV2DynamicExt or IPluginV2IOExt interfaces instead.

IPlugin and IPluginFactory interfaces were deprecated in TensorRT 6.0 and have been removed in TensorRT 8.0. In order to use the most recent Plugin layer features, your custom plugin should implement the IPluginV2DynamicExt or IPluginV2IOExt interface.

The new features in IPluginV2DynamicExt are as follows:
virtual DimsExprs getOutputDimensions(int outputIndex, const DimsExprs* inputs, int nbInputs, IExprBuilder& exprBuilder) = 0;

virtual bool supportsFormatCombination(int pos, const PluginTensorDesc* inOut, int nbInputs, int nbOutputs) = 0;

virtual void configurePlugin(const DynamicPluginTensorDesc* in, int nbInputs, const DynamicPluginTensorDesc* out, int nbOutputs) = 0;

virtual size_t getWorkspaceSize(const PluginTensorDesc* inputs, int nbInputs, const PluginTensorDesc* outputs, int nbOutputs) const = 0;

virtual int enqueue(const PluginTensorDesc* inputDesc, const PluginTensorDesc* outputDesc, const void* const* inputs, void* const* outputs, void* workspace, cudaStream_t stream) = 0;

The new features in IPluginV2IOExt are as follows:
virtual void configurePlugin(const PluginTensorDesc* in, int nbInput, const PluginTensorDesc* out, int nbOutput) = 0;

virtual bool supportsFormatCombination(int pos, const PluginTensorDesc* inOut, int nbInputs, int nbOutputs) const = 0;

Guidelines for migration to IPluginV2DynamicExt or IPluginV2IOExt:
• getOutputDimensions implements the expression for output tensor dimensions given the inputs.
• supportsFormatCombination checks if the plugin supports the format and datatype for the specified input/output.
• configurePlugin mimics the behavior of equivalent configurePlugin in IPluginV2Ext but accepts tensor descriptors.
• getWorkspaceSize and enqueue mimic the behavior of equivalent APIs in IPluginV2Ext but accept tensor descriptors.

Refer to the API description in IPluginV2 API Description for more details about the API.

### IPluginV2 API Description

The following section describes the functions of the IPluginV2 class. To connect a plugin layer to neighboring layers and set up input and output data structures, the builder checks for the number of outputs and their dimensions by calling the following plugins methods.
getNbOutputs

Used to specify the number of output tensors.

getOutputDimensions

Used to specify the dimensions of output as a function of the input dimensions.

supportsFormat

Used to check if a plugin supports a given data format.

getOutputDataType

Used to get the data type of the output at a given index. The returned data type must have a format that is supported by the plugin.

Plugin layers can support four data formats and layouts, for example:
• NCHW single (FP32), half-precision (FP16), and integer (INT32) tensors

• NC/2HW2 and NHWC8 half-precision (FP16) tensors

The formats are enumerated by PluginFormatType.

Plugins that do not compute all data in place and need memory space in addition to input and output tensors can specify the additional memory requirements with the getWorkspaceSize method, which is called by the builder to determine and pre-allocate scratch space.

During both build and inference time, the plugin layer is configured and executed, possibly multiple times. At build time, to discover optimal configurations, the layer is configured, initialized, executed, and terminated. After the optimal format is selected for a plugin, the plugin is once again configured, then it is initialized once and executed as many times as needed for the lifetime of the inference application, and finally terminated when the engine is destroyed. These steps are controlled by the builder and the engine using the following plugin methods:
configurePlugin

Communicates the number of inputs and outputs, dimensions and datatypes of all inputs and outputs, broadcast information for all inputs and outputs, the chosen plugin format, and maximum batch size. At this point, the plugin sets up its internal state and selects the most appropriate algorithm and data structures for the given configuration.

initialize

The configuration is known at this time, and the inference engine is being created, so the plugin can set up its internal data structures and prepare for execution.

enqueue

Encapsulates the actual algorithm and kernel calls of the plugin and provides the runtime batch size, pointers to input, output, and scratch space, and the CUDA stream to be used for kernel execution.

terminate

The engine context is destroyed, and all the resources held by the plugin should be released.

clone

This is called every time a new builder, network, or engine is created that includes this plugin layer. It should return a new plugin object with the correct parameters.

destroy

Used to destroy the plugin object and/or other memory allocated each time a new plugin object is created. It is called whenever the builder or network or engine is destroyed.

set/getPluginNamespace

This method is used to set the library namespace that this plugin object belongs to (default can be ""). All plugin objects from the same plugin library should have the same namespace.

IPluginV2Ext supports plugins that can handle broadcast inputs and outputs. The following methods need to be implemented for this feature:

This method is called for each input whose tensor is semantically broadcast across a batch. If canBroadcastInputAcrossBatch returns true (meaning the plugin can support broadcast), TensorRT does not replicate the input tensor. There is a single copy that the plugin should share across the batch. If it returns false, TensorRT replicates the input tensor so that it appears like a non-broadcasted tensor.

This is called for each output index. The plugin should return true the output at the given index and is broadcast across the batch.

IPluginV2IOExt

This is called by the builder prior to initialize(). It provides an opportunity for the layer to make algorithm choices on the basis of I/O PluginTensorDesc and the maximum batch size.

### 4.4.3. IPluginCreator API Description

The following methods in the IPluginCreator class are used to find and create the appropriate plugin from the Plugin Registry.
getPluginName

This returns the plugin name and should match the return value of IPluginExt::getPluginType.

getPluginVersion

Returns the plugin version. For all internal TensorRT plugins, this defaults to 1.

getFieldNames

To successfully create a plugin, it is necessary to know all the field parameters of the plugin. This method returns the PluginFieldCollection struct with the PluginField entries populated to reflect the field name and PluginFieldType (the data should point to nullptr).

createPlugin

This method is used to create the plugin using the PluginFieldCollection argument. The data field of the PluginField entries should be populated to point to the actual data for each plugin field entry.

deserializePlugin

This method is called internally by the TensorRT engine based on the plugin name and version. It should return the plugin object to be used for inference.

set/getPluginNamespace

This method is used to set the namespace that this creator instance belongs to (default can be "").

### 4.4.4. Persistent LSTM Plugin

The following section describes the new Persistent LSTM plugin. The Persistent LSTM plugin supports half-precision persistent LSTM. To create a Persistent LSTM plugin in the network, you need to call:
auto creator = getPluginRegistry()->getPluginCreator("CgPersistentLSTMPlugin_TRT", "1")

IPluginV2* cgPersistentLSTMPlugin = creator->createPlugin("CgPersistentLSTMPlugin_TRT", &fc);

fc is a PluginField array that consists of four parameters:
• hiddenSize: This is an INT32 parameter that specifies the hidden size of LSTM.

• numLayers: This is an INT32 parameter that specifies the number of layers in LSTM.

• bidirectionFactor: This is an INT32 parameter that indicates whether LSTM is bidirectional. If LSTM is bidirectional, the value should be set to 2; otherwise, the value is set to 1.

• setInitialStates: This is an INT32 parameter that indicates whether LSTM has initial state and cell values as inputs. If it is set to 0, the initial state and cell values are zero. It is recommended to use this flag instead of providing zero state and cell values as inputs for better performance.

The plugin can be added to the network by calling:
auto lstmLayer = network->addPluginV2(&inputs[0], 6, *cgPersistentLSTMPlugin);
inputs is a vector of ITensor pointers with six elements in the following order:
1. input: These are the input sequences to the LSTM.
2. seqLenTensor: This is the sequence length vector that stores the effective length of each sequence.
3. weight: This tensor consists of all weights needed for LSTM. Even though this tensor is 1D, it can be viewed with the following 3D indexing [isW, layerNb, gateType]. isW starts from false to true suggesting that the first half of weight is recurrent weight and the second half is input weight. layerNb starts from 0 to numLayers*bidirectionFactor such that the first layer is the forward direction of the actual layer and the second layer is the backward direction. The gateType follows this order: input, cell, forget and output.
4. bias: Similar to weight, this tensor consists of all biases needed for LSTM. Even though this tensor is 1D, it can be viewed with the following 3D indexing [layerNb, isW, gateType]. Notice the slight difference between bias and weight.
5. initial hidden state: The pointer should be set to null if setInitialStates is 0. Otherwise, the tensor should consist of the initial hidden state values with the following coordinates [batch index, layerNb, hidden index]. The batch index indicates the index within a batch, and the hidden index is the index to vectors of hiddenSize length.
6. initial cell state: The pointer should be set to null if setInitialStates is 0. Otherwise, the tensor should consist of the initial hidden state values with the following coordinates [batch index, layerNb, hidden index].

### Converting User-Defined Layers

To create a custom layer implementation as a TensorRT plugin, you need to implement the IPluginV2Ext class and the IPluginCreator class for your plugin.

For more information about both API classes, refer to Plugin API Description.

### Debugging Custom Layer Issues

Memory allocated in the plugin must be freed to ensure no memory leak. If resources are acquired in the initialize() function, they need to be released in the terminate() function. All other memory allocations should be freed, preferably in the plugin class destructor or in the destroy() method. Adding Custom Layers Using The C++ API outlines this in detail and also provides some notes for best practices when using plugins.

## 5. Working With Mixed Precision

Mixed precision is the combined use of different numerical precisions in a computational method. NVIDIA® TensorRT™ can store weights and activations, and execute layers in 32-bit floating-point, 16-bit floating-point, or quantized 8-bit integer.

Using precision lower than FP32 reduces memory usage, allowing the deployment of larger networks. Data transfers take less time, and compute performance increases, especially on GPUs with Tensor Core support for that precision.

By default, TensorRT uses FP32 inference, but it also supports FP16 and INT8. While running FP16 inference, it automatically converts FP32 weights to FP16 weights.

You can check the supported precision on a platform using the following APIs:
if (builder->platformHasFastFp16()) { … };
if (builder->platformHasFastInt8()) { … };


Specifying the precision for a network defines the minimum acceptable precision for the application. Higher precision kernels can be chosen if they are faster for some particular set of kernel parameters or if no lower-precision kernel exists. You can set the builder config flag BuilderFlag::kSTRICT_TYPES to force the network or layer precision, which cannot have optimal performance. The usage of this flag is only recommended for debugging purposes.

You can also choose to set both INT8 and FP16 mode if the platform supports it. Using both INT8 and FP16 mode would allow TensorRT to choose from FP32, FP16, and INT8 kernels, thus resulting in the most optimal engine from inference.

### 5.1.1. Setting The Layer Precision Using C++

If you want to run certain layers in a specific precision, you can constrain the input and output types per layer using the following API:
layer->setPrecision(nvinfer1::DataType::kINT8)

This gives the layer’s inputs and outputs a preferred type (here, DataType::kINT8).

The arithmetic precision with which TensorRT runs the layer matches the input types (note that INT8 means quantized INT8 for this purpose).

You can choose a different preferred type for an output of a layer using:
layer->setOutputType(out_tensor_index, nvinfer1::DataType::kFLOAT)

Most TensorRT implementations have the same floating-point types for input and output; however, Convolution, Deconvolution, and FullyConnected can support quantized INT8 input and unquantized FP16 or FP32 output.

Setting the precision constraints hints that TensorRT should use a layer implementation whose inputs and outputs match the preferred types, inserting reformat operations if the outputs of the previous layer and the inputs to the next layer do not match the requested types.

By default, TensorRT chooses such an implementation only if it results in a higher-performance network. If an implementation with another precision is faster, TensorRT uses it and issues a warning. You can override this behavior by making the type constraints strict.
IBuilderConfig * config = builder->createBuilderConfig();
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kSTRICT_TYPES)


If the constraints are strict, TensorRT obeys them unless there is no implementation with the preferred precision constraints, in which case it issues a warning and uses the fastest available implementation.

If there are no precision constraints, TensorRT selects an operator implementation based on performance considerations and the flags specified to the builder. For more information, refer to the Hardware And Precision section in the TensorRT Support Matrix.

Refer to Performing Inference In INT8 Precision (sampleINT8API) located in the GitHub repository for an example of running mixed-precision inference with these APIs.
Note: INT8 should not be used as a type constraint when using explicit quantization. For details of using mixed precision with explicit quantization, refer to the TensorRT Processing Of Q/DQ Networks section.

### 5.1.2. Enabling TF32 Inference Using C++

TensorRT allows the use of TF32 Tensor Cores by default. When computing inner products, such as during convolution or matrix multiplication, TF32 execution does the following:
• Rounds the FP32 multiplicands to FP16 precision but keeps the FP32 dynamic range.
• Computes an exact product of the rounded multiplicands.
• Accumulates the products in an FP32 sum.

TF32 Tensor Cores can speed up networks using FP32, typically with no loss of accuracy. It is more robust than FP16 for models which require a high dynamic range for weights or activations.

There is no guarantee that TF32 Tensor Cores are actually used, and there’s no way to force it. TensorRT can fall back to FP32 at any time and always falls back if the platform does not support TF32. You can check for platform support by querying an IBuilder like this:
bool hasTf32 = builder->platformHasTf32()
To disable TF32, clear the flag BuilderFlag::kTF32 in in your IBuilderConfig, like this:
config->clearFlag(BuilderFlag::kTF32);

If TF32 works for you, we nonetheless Enabling FP16 Inference Using C++ since it can yield faster execution than TF32.

Setting the environment variable NVIDIA_TF32_OVERRIDE=0 when building an engine disables the use of TF32, despite setting BuilderFlag::kTF32. This environment variable, when set to 0, overrides any defaults or programmatic configuration of NVIDIA libraries, so they never accelerate FP32 computations with TF32 Tensor Cores. This is meant to be a debugging tool only, and no code outside NVIDIA libraries should change the behavior based on this environment variable. Any other setting besides 0 is reserved for future use.
Warning: Setting the environment variable NVIDIA_TF32_OVERRIDE to a different value when the engine is run can cause unpredictable precision/performance effects. It is best left unset when an engine is run.

### 5.1.3. Enabling FP16 Inference Using C++

Setting the builder’s Fp16Mode flag indicates that 16-bit precision is acceptable.
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kFP16);
This flag allows but does not guarantee that 16-bit kernels are used when building the engine. You can choose to force 16-bit precision by setting the following builder flag:
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kSTRICT_TYPES)

Weights can be specified in FP16 or FP32, and are converted automatically to the appropriate precision for the computation.

Refer to Building And Running GoogleNet In TensorRT (sampleGoogleNet) and "Hello World" For TensorRT (sampleMNIST) located in the GitHub repository for running FP16 inference.

### 5.1.4. Enabling INT8 Inference Using C++

In order to perform INT8 inference, FP32 activation tensors and weights need to be quantized. In order to represent 32-bit floating point values and INT 8-bit quantized values, TensorRT needs to understand the dynamic range of each activation tensor. The dynamic range is used to determine the appropriate quantization scale.
Setting the builder flag enables INT8 precision inference.
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kINT8);

For weights, TensorRT supports symmetric quantization with a quantization scale calculated using absolute maximum dynamic range values.

TensorRT needs the dynamic range for each activation tensor in the network. There are two ways in which the dynamic-range can be provided to the network:
• Manually set the dynamic range for each network tensor using setDynamicRange API
Or
• Use INT8 calibration to generate per tensor dynamic range using the calibration dataset.

The dynamic range API can also be used along with INT8 calibration, such that manually setting the range takes precedence over the calibration generated dynamic range. Such a scenario is possible if INT8 calibration does not generate a satisfactory dynamic range for certain tensors.

For more information, refer to Performing Inference In INT8 Precision (sampleINT8API) located in the GitHub repository.

### 5.1.4.1. Setting Per-Tensor Dynamic Range Using C++

You can generate per tensor the dynamic range using various techniques. The basic technique includes recording per tensor the min and max values during the last epoch of training or using quantization aware training. TensorRT expects you to set the dynamic range for each network tensor to perform INT8 inference.
After you have the dynamic range of information, you can set the dynamic range as follows:
ITensor* tensor = network->getLayer(layer_index)->getOutput(output_index);
tensor->setDynamicRange(min_float, max_float);

You also need to set the dynamic range for the network input:
ITensor* input_tensor = network->getInput(input_index);
input_tensor->setDynamicRange(min_float, max_float);


One way to achieve this is to iterate through the network layers and tensors and set per tensor the dynamic range. TensorRT only supports symmetric range currently; therefore, only abs(min_float) and abs(max_float) is used for quantization. For more information, refer to Performing Inference In INT8 Precision (sampleINT8API) located in the GitHub repository.

### 5.1.4.2. INT8 Calibration Using C++

INT8 calibration provides an alternative to generate a per-tensor dynamic range. Calibrators compute a scale per tensor. This method can be categorized as a post-training technique to generate the appropriate quantization scale. The process of determining these scale factors is called calibration and requires the application to pass batches of representative input for the network (typical batches from the training set.) Experiments indicate that about 500 images are sufficient for calibrating ImageNet classification networks.
To provide calibration data to TensorRT, implement the IInt8Calibrator interface. TensorRT provides multiple variants of IInt8Calibrator:
IEntropyCalibratorV2
This is the recommended calibrator and is required for DLA. Calibration happens before Layer fusion by default. This is recommended for CNN-based networks.
IMinMaxCalibrator
This calibrator seems to work better for NLP tasks. Calibration happens before Layer fusion by default. This is recommended for networks such as NVIDIA BERT (an optimized version of Google's official implementation).
IEntropyCalibrator
This is the legacy entropy calibrator. This is less complicated than a legacy calibrator and produces better results. Calibration happens after Layer fusion by default. Refer to kCALIBRATION_BEFORE_FUSION for enabling calibration before fusion.
ILegacyCalibrator
This calibrator is for compatibility with TensorRT 2.0 EA. This calibrator requires user parameterization and is provided as a fallback option if the other calibrators yield poor results. Calibration happens after Layer fusion by default. Refer to kCALIBRATION_BEFORE_FUSION for enabling calibration before fusion. Users can customize this calibrator to implement percentile max, like 99.99% percentile max is proved to have the best accuracy for NVIDIA BERT. For more information, refer to the Integer Quantization for Deep Learning Inference: Principles and Empirical Evaluation paper.
The builder invokes the calibrator as follows:
• First, it calls getBatchSize() to determine the size of the input batch to expect.
• Then, it repeatedly calls getBatch() to obtain batches of input. Batches should be exactly the batch size by getBatchSize(). When there are no more batches, getBatch() should return false.

Calibration can be slow; therefore, the IInt8Calibrator interface provides methods for caching intermediate data. Using these methods effectively requires a more detailed understanding of calibration.

When building an INT8 engine, the builder performs the following steps:
1. Builds a 32-bit engine, runs it on the calibration set, and records a histogram for each tensor of the distribution of activation values.
2. Builds a calibration table from the histograms.
3. Builds the INT8 engine from the calibration table and the network definition.

The calibration table can be cached. Caching is useful when building the same network multiple times, for example, on multiple platforms. It captures data derived from the network and the calibration set. The parameters are recorded in the table. If the network or calibration set changes, it is the application’s responsibility to invalidate the cache.

The cache is used as follows:
• if a calibration table is found, calibration is skipped, otherwise:
• the calibration table is built from the histograms and parameters
• then the INT8 network is built from the network definition and the calibration table.
Cached data is passed as a pointer and length.
After you have implemented the calibrator, you can configure the builder to use it:
config->setInt8Calibrator(calibrator.get());

It is possible to cache the output of calibration using the writeCalibrationCache() and readCalibrationCache() methods. The builder checks the cache prior to performing calibration, and if data is found, calibration is skipped.

For more information about configuring INT8 Calibrator objects, see Performing Inference In INT8 Using Custom Calibration (sampleINT8) located in the GitHub repository.

### 5.2.1. Setting The Layer Precision Using Python

In Python, you can specify the layer precision using the precision flag:
layer.precision = trt.int8

You can set the output tensor data type to conform with the layer implementation:
layer.set_output_type(out_tensor_index, trt.int8)

Ensure that the builder understands to force the precision:
config.set_flag(trt.BuilderFlag.STRICT_TYPES)

For more information, refer to the INT8 Calibration In Python (int8_caffe_mnist) sample.

### 5.2.2. Enabling FP16 Inference Using Python

In Python, set the fp16_mode flag as follows:
config.set_flag(trt.BuilderFlag.FP16)
Force 16-bit precision by setting the builder flag:
config.set_flag(trt.BuilderFlag.STRICT_TYPES)

### 5.2.3. Enabling INT8 Inference Using Python

Enable INT8 mode by setting the builder flag:
config.set_flag(trt.BuilderFlag.INT8)

Similar to the C++ API, you can choose per activation tensor the dynamic range either using dynamic_range or using INT8 calibration.

INT8 calibration can be used along with the dynamic range APIs. Setting the dynamic range manually overrides the dynamic range generated from INT8 calibration.

### 5.2.3.1. Setting Per-Tensor Dynamic Range Using Python

In order to perform INT8 inference, you must set the dynamic range for each network tensor. You can derive the dynamic range values using various methods, including quantization aware training or simply recording per tensor the min and max values during the last training epoch. To set the dynamic range use:
layer = network[layer_index]
tensor = layer.get_output(output_index)
tensor.dynamic_range = (min_float, max_float)

You also need to set the dynamic range for the network input:
input_tensor = network.get_input(input_index)
input_tensor.dynamic_range = (min_float, max_float)


### 5.2.3.2. INT8 Calibration Using Python

INT8 calibration provides an alternative approach to generate per activation tensor the dynamic range. This method can be categorized as a post-training technique to generate the appropriate quantization scale. The following steps illustrate how to create an INT8 calibrator object using the Python API. By default, TensorRT supports INT8 calibration.
##### Procedure
1. Import TensorRT:
import tensorrt as trt
2. Similar to test/validation files, use a set of input files as a calibration files dataset. Make sure the calibration files are representative of the overall inference data files. For TensorRT to use the calibration files, we need to create a batchstream object. A batchstream object are used to configure the calibrator.
NUM_IMAGES_PER_BATCH = 5
batchstream = ImageBatchStream(NUM_IMAGES_PER_BATCH, calibration_files)

3. Create an Int8_calibrator object with input nodes names and batch stream:
Int8_calibrator = EntropyCalibrator(["input_node_name"], batchstream)
4. Set INT8 mode and INT8 calibrator:
config.set_flag(trt.BuilderFlag.INT8)
config.int8_calibrator = Int8_calibrator


The rest of the logic for engine creation and inference is similar to Importing From ONNX Using Python.

### 5.2.3.3. INT8 Rounding Modes

Backend Compute Kernel Quantization (FP32 to INT8) Weights Quantization (FP32 to INT8)
Quantized Network (QAT) Dynamic Range API / Calibration
GPU round-to-nearest-with-ties-to-even round-to-nearest-with-ties-to-even round-to-nearest-with-ties-to-positive-infinity
DLA round-to-nearest-with-ties-away-from-zero N/A round-to-nearest-with-ties-away-from-zero

### 5.3. Explicit-Quantization

TensorRT supports two modes to process INT8 networks. The first processing mode uses INT8 precision opportunistically to optimize the model inference latency and is described in Enabling INT8 Inference Using C++. The second mode for processing INT8 networks is referred to as TensorRT explicit-quantization and is described in this chapter.

TensorRT 8.0 improves support for networks utilizing instances of C++ IQuantizeLayer / Python IQuantizeLayer and C++ IDequantizeLayer / Python IDequantizeLayer. IQuantizeLayer and IDequantizeLayer implement quantization and dequantization operators, respectively, and are referred to as Q/DQ for the remainder of this guide. Q/DQ layers are used in 8-bit integer quantized models for explicitly specifying compute and data precisions in a network.

When TensorRT detects the presence of Q/DQ layers in a network, it builds an engine using explicit-precision processing logic, as described in later sections.

### 5.3.1. Quantization Scale

TensorRT supports symmetric uniform quantization only, which means the zero point is always zero (as a scalar or as a vector), and it is therefore not discussed.
There are two common quantization scale granularities:
• Per-tensor quantization: in which a single scale value (scalar) is used to scale the entire tensor.
• Per-axis quantization: in which a scale tensor is broadcast along the given quantization axis.

Weights can be quantized using per-tensor quantization or they can be quantized using per-channel quantization. In either case, the scale precision is FP32. Activations can only be quantized using per-tensor quantization. TensorRT uses signed INT8 for representing quantized weights and activations.

When using per-channel quantization, the axis of quantization must be the output-channel axis. For example, when the weights of 2D convolution are described using KCRS notation, K is the output-channel axis, and the weights quantization can be described as:
For each k in K:
For each c in C:
For each r in R:
For each s in S:
output[k,c,r,s] := clamp(round(input[k,c,r,s] / scale[k]))


The scale is a vector of coefficients and must have the same size as the quantization axis. The quantization scale must consist of all positive float coefficients. The rounding method is rounding-to-nearest ties-to-even and clamping is in the range [-128, 127].

Dequantization is performed similarly except for the pointwise operation which is defined as:
output[k,c,r,s] := input[k,c,r,s] * scale[k]

### 5.3.2. Quantized Weights

Weights of Q/DQ models must be specified using FP32 data type. The weights are quantized by TensorRT using the scale of the IQuantlizeLayer that operates on the weights. The quantized weights are stored in the Engine file.

Pre-quantized weights can also be used but still require to be specified using FP32 data-type. The quantization scale should be set to 1.0f, but the dequantization scale should be the real scale value used to quantize the weights so that TensorRT knows how to dequantize the output of the linear operation.

### 5.3.3. ONNX Support

When a model trained in PyTorch or TensorFlow using Quantization Aware Training (QAT) is exported to ONNX, each fake-quantization operation in the framework’s graph is exported as a pair of QuantizeLinear and DequantizeLinear ONNX operators.

When TensorRT imports ONNX models, the ONNX QuantizeLinear operator is imported as an IQuantizeLayer instance, and the ONNX DequantizeLinear operator is imported as an IDequantizeLayer instance. ONNX using opset 10 introduced support for QuantizeLinear/DequantizeLinear, and a quantization-axis attribute was added in opset 13 (required for per-channel quantization). PyTorch 1.8 introduced support for exporting PyTorch models to ONNX using opset 13.
Warning: The ONNX GEMM operator is an example that can be quantized per channel. PyTorch torch.nn.Linear layers are exported as an ONNX GEMM operator with (K, C) weights layout and with the transB GEMM attribute enabled (this transposes the weights before performing the GEMM operation). TensorFlow, on the other hand, pre-transposes the weights (C, K) before ONNX export:
• PyTorch: y = xWT
• TensorFlow: y = xW

PyTorch weights are therefore transposed by TensorRT. The weights are quantized by TensorRT before they are transposed, so GEMM layers originating from ONNX QAT models that were exported from PyTorch use dimension 0 for per-channel quantization (axis K = 0); while models originating from TensorFlow use dimension 1 (axis K = 1).

TensorRT does not support pre-quantized ONNX models that use INT8 tensors or quantized operators. Specifically, the following ONNX quantized operators are not supported and generates an import error if they are encountered when TensorRT imports the ONNX model:

TensorRT’s Quantization Toolkit for PyTorch provides a recipe for performing fine-tuning QAT. The toolkit complements TensorRT by providing a convenient PyTorch library that helps produce QAT models that can be optimized by TensorRT. You can also utilize the toolkit’s Post-Training Quantization (PTQ) recipe to perform PTQ in PyTorch and export to ONNX. The toolkit exports the quantization-scales learned through the calibration process as a pair of QuantizeLinear and DequantizeLinear ONNX operators. In this workflow, you perform PTQ but generate a Q/DQ ONNX model. TensorRT processes this ONNX model using explicit-quantization Q/DQ processing mode, which provides more control over the arithmetic precision of layers in the network.

### 5.3.4. QAT Networks Using C++

A Q/DQ network must be built with the INT8-precision builder flag enabled:
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kINT8);

### 5.3.5. TensorRT Processing Of Q/DQ Networks

When TensorRT optimizes a network in Q/DQ-mode, the optimization process is limited to optimizations that do not change the arithmetic correctness of the network. Bit-level accuracy is rarely possible since the order of floating-point operations can produce different results (for example, rewriting a * s + b * s as (a + b) * sis a valid optimization). Allowing these differences is fundamental to back-end optimization in general, and this also applies to converting a graph with Q/DQ layers to use INT8 computation.

Q/DQ layers control the compute and data precision of a network. An IQuantizeLayer instance converts an FP32 tensor to an INT8 tensor by employing quantization, and an IDequantizeLayer instance converts an INT8 tensor to an FP32 tensor by means of dequantization. TensorRT expects a Q/DQ layer pair on each of the inputs of quantizable-layers. Quantizable-layers are deep-learning layers that can be converted to quantized layers by fusing with IQuantizeLayer and IDequantizeLayer instances. When TensorRT performs these fusions, it replaces the quantizable-layers with quantized layers that actually operate on INT8 data using INT8 compute operations.

For the diagrams used in this chapter, green designates INT8 precision and blue designates floating-point precision. Arrows represent network activation tensors and squares represent network layers.

Figure 3. A quantizable AveragePool layer (in blue) is fused with a DQ layer and a Q layer. All three layers are replaced by a quantized AveragePool layer (in green).

During network optimization, TensorRT moves Q/DQ layers in a process called Q/DQ propagation. The goal in propagation is to maximize the proportion of the graph that can be processed at low precision. Thus, TensorRT propagates Q nodes backwards (so that quantization happens as early as possible) and DQ nodes forward (so that dequantization happens as late as possible). Q-layers can swap places with layers that commute-with-Quantization and DQ-layers can swap places with layers that commute-with-Dequantization.

A layer Op commutes with quantization if:
Q(Op(x)) == Op(Q(x))
Similarly, a layer Op commutes with dequantization if:
Op(DQ(x)) == DQ(Op(x))

The following diagram illustrates DQ forward-propagation and Q backward-propagation. These are legal rewrites of the model because Max Pooling has an INT8 implementation and because Max Pooling commutes with DQ and with Q.

Figure 4. An illustration depicting a DQ forward-propagation and Q backward-propagation.

Note:

To understand Max Pooling commutation, let’s look at the output of the maximum-pooling operation applied to some arbitrary input. Max Pooling is applied to groups of input coefficients and outputs the coefficient with the maximum value. For group i composed of coefficients :

It is therefore enough to look at two arbitrary coefficients without loss of generality (WLOG):

For quantization function , with scale > 0, note that (without providing proof, and using simplified notation):

Therefore:

However, by definition:

Function max commutes-with-quantization and so does Max Pooling.

Similarly for dequantization, function DQ(a, scale) := a * scale with scale > 0 we can show that:

There is a distinction between how quantizable-layers and commuting-layers are processed. Both types of layers can compute in INT8, but quantizable-layers also fuse with DQ input layers and a Q output layer. For example, an AveragePooling layer (quantizable) does not commute with either Q or DQ, so it is quantized using Q/DQ fusion as illustrated in the first diagram. This is in contrast to how Max Pooling (commuting) is quantized.

### 5.3.5.1. Explicit-Quantization Vs. PTQ-Processing

To understand explicit-quantization in TensorRT, it is important to understand the motivation for this special mode: network processing-predictability, which relies on the concept of explicit precision. Processing-predictability is the promise to maintain the arithmetic precision of the original model as it is optimized, and it gives users more control over the arithmetic precision used by kernels in the optimized engine file. Note that the processing-predictability promise does not mean that specific fusions or graph-rewrites are used.

Q/DQ layers specify where precision transitions must happen and that all optimizations must preserve the arithmetic semantics of the original ONNX model. This can be made clear by contrasting TensorRT explicit-quantization and TensorRT INT8 (PTQ) processing.

In PTQ, TensorRT treats the model as a floating-point model when applying the graph optimizations; and uses INT8 opportunistically to optimize layer execution time. If a layer runs faster in INT8, then it executes in INT8. Otherwise, FP32 or FP16 are used. In this mode, TensorRT is optimizing for performance only, and the user has little control over where INT8 are used.

In contrast, in explicit-quantization, Q/DQ layers specify where precision transitions must happen. The optimizer is not allowed to perform precision-conversions that are not dictated by the semantics of the network, even if:
• such conversions increase layer precision (for example, choosing an FP16 kernel implementation over an INT8 implementation)
• such conversion results in an engine that executes faster (for example, choosing an INT8 kernel implementation to execute a layer specified as having float precision or vice versa)
Note: On some older GPUs, a lower ratio of INT8 to FP compute can even result in better performance of the FP kernels compared to INT8.
This is called explicit precision.

In this mode, the user has full control over precision-transitions and quantizations are predictable. TensorRT still optimizes for performance but under the promise of maintaining the arithmetic precision of the original model.

Note that some of the Q/DQ optimizations do change the order of floating-point operations and that reordering float-operations does produce arithmetic errors. This class of arithmetic errors are acceptable in the realm of DNN optimization.

Table 2. The differences in processing; IQuantizeLayer/IDequantizeLayer (Q/DQ) vs Post-Training Quantization (PTQ)
TensorRT INT8 (PTQ) processing TensorRT explicit-quantization
User control over precision Little control: INT8 is used in all kernels for which it accelerates performance. Full control over quantization/dequantization boundaries.
Optimization criterion Optimize for performance. Optimize for performance while maintaining arithmetic precision (accuracy).
API
• Model + Scales (dynamic range API)
• Model + Calibration data
Model with Q/DQ layers.
Quantization scales
Weights:
• Set by TensorRT (internal)
• Range [-127, 127]
Activations:
• Set by calibration or specified by the user
• Range [-128, 127]
Weights and activations:
• Specified using Q/DQ ONNX operators
• Range [-128, 127]

### 5.3.5.2. Q/DQ Layer-Placement Recommendations

The placement of Q/DQ layers in a network affects performance and accuracy. Aggressive quantization can lead to degradation in model accuracy because of the error introduced by quantization. But quantization also enables latency reductions. Listed here are some recommendations for placing Q/DQ layers in your network.

Quantize all inputs of weighted-operations (Convolution, Transposed Convolution and GEMM). Quantization of the weights and activations reduces bandwidth requirements and also enables INT8 compute to accelerate bandwidth-limited and compute-limited layers.

Figure 5. Two examples of how TensorRT fuses convolutional layers. On the left, only the inputs are quantized. On the right, both inputs and output are quantized.

By default, don’t quantize the outputs of weighted-operations. It’s sometimes useful to preserve the higher-precision dequantized output. For example, we can want to follow the linear operation by an activation function (SiLU, in the following diagram) that requires higher precision to improve network accuracy.

Figure 6. Example of a linear operation followed by an activation function.

Don’t simulate batch-normalization and ReLU fusions in the training framework because TensorRT optimizations guarantee to preserve the arithmetic semantics of these operations.

Figure 7. Batch normalization is fused with convolution and ReLU while keeping the same execution order as defined in the pre-fusion network. There is no need to simulate BN-folding in the training network.

TensorRT can fuse element-wise addition following weighted layers, which is useful for models with skip connections like ResNet and EfficientNet. The precision of the first input to the element-wise addition layer determines the precision of the output of the fusion.

For example, in the following diagram, the precision of xf1 is floating-point, so the output of the fused convolution is limited to floating-point, and the trailing Q-layer cannot be fused with the convolution.

Figure 8. The precision of xf1 is floating-point, so the output of the fused convolution is limited to floating-point, and the trailing Q-layer cannot be fused with the convolution.

In contrast, when xf1 is quantized to INT8, as depicted in the following diagram, the output of the fused convolution is also INT8, and the trailing Q-layer is fused with the convolution.

Figure 9. When xf1 is quantized to INT8, the output of the fused convolution is also INT8, and the trailing Q-layer is fused with the convolution.

For extra performance, try quantizing layers that do not commute with Q/DQ. Currently, non-weighted layers that have INT8 inputs also require INT8 outputs, so quantize both inputs and outputs.

Figure 10. An example of quantizing a quantizable-operator. An element-wise addition operator is fused with the input DQ operators and the output Q operator.

Performance can decrease if TensorRT cannot fuse the operations with the surrounding Q/DQ layers, so be conservative when adding Q/DQ nodes and experiment with accuracy and TensorRT performance in mind.

The following figure is an example of suboptimal fusions (the highlighted light green background rectangles) that can result from extra Q/DQ operators. Contrast the following figure with Figure 9, which shows a more performant configuration. The convolution operator is fused separately from the element-wise addition operator because each of them is surrounded by Q/DQ operator pairs. The fusion of the element-wise addition operator is shown in Figure 10.

Figure 11. An example of suboptimal quantization fusions: contrast the suboptimal fusion in A and the optimal fusion in B. The extra pair of Q/DQ operators (highlighted with a glowing-green border) forces the separation of the convolution operator from the element-wise addition operator.

Use per-tensor quantization for activations; and per-channel quantization for weights.This configuration has been demonstrated empirically to lead to the best quantization accuracy.

You can further optimize engine latency by enabling FP16. TensorRT attempts to use FP16 instead of FP32 whenever possible (this is not currently supported for all layer types):
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kFP16)

### 5.3.5.3. Q/DQ Limitations

A few of the Q/DQ graph-rewrite optimizations that TensorRT performs compare the values of quantization scales between two or more Q/DQ layers and only perform the graph-rewrite if the compared quantization scales are equal. When a refittable TensorRT engine is refitted, the scales of Q/DQ nodes can be assigned new values. During the refitting operation of Q/DQ engines, TensorRT checks if Q/DQ layers that participated in scale-dependent optimizations are assigned new values that break the rewrite optimizations and throws an exception if true.
Figure 12. An example showing scales of Q1 and Q2 are compared for equality, and if equal, they are allowed to propagate backward. If the engine is refitted with new values for Q1 and Q2 such that Q1 != Q2, then an exception aborts the refitting process.

### 5.3.6. Quantization Aware Training (QAT) Using TensorFlow

TensorFlow QAT models place Q/DQ on the outputs of weighted-operations (in contrast with the TensorRT Quantization Toolkit for PyTorch) and can produce suboptimal models. TensorRT is not validated on TensorFlow and can show a lower quality of service.

As TensorRT only supports symmetric quantization for both activations and weights, a training graph must be created using symmetric=True.

Tensorflow 1.15 supports Quantization Aware Training (QAT) for creating symmetrically quantized models using tf.contrib.quantize.experimental_create_training_graph API. By default, the TensorFlow training graph would create per-tensor weights and activation dynamic range, meaning (min, max). If per-channel weights dynamic range needs to be generated, we would need to update QAT scripts.

After QAT, we can create a frozen inference graph using the following commands. We are using TensorFlow models repo for training and creating an inference graph.
python models/research/slim/export_inference_graph.py \
--model_name<model> \
--output_file=quantized_symm_eval.pb \
--quantize \
--symmetric
Freeze the graph with checkpoints:
python tensorflow/tensorflow/python/tools/freeze_graph.py \
--input_graph=eval.pb \
--input_checkpoint=model.ckpt-0000 \
--input_binary=true \
--output_graph=quantized_symm_frozen.pb \
--output_node_names=<OutputNode>


### 5.3.6.1. Converting TensorFlow To ONNX Quantized Models

TensorFlow quantized model with tensorflow::ops::FakeQuantWithMinMaxVars or tensorflow::ops::FakeQuantWithMinMaxVarsPerChannel nodes can be converted to sequence of QuantizeLinear and DequantizeLinear nodes (Q/DQ nodes).

Dynamic range with, meaning [min, max], values are converted to scale and zero-point, where scale = max(abs(min, max))/127 and zero_point = 0.

We use the tf2onnx converter to convert a quantized frozen model to a quantized ONNX model.
python -m tf2onnx.convert \
--input quantized_symm_frozen.pb \
--output quantized.onnx \
--inputs <InputNode> \
--outputs <OutputNode> \
--opset 10 \
--fold_const \
--inputs-as-nchw <InputNode>


### 5.3.7. Quantization Aware Training (QAT) Using PyTorch

PyTorch 1.8.0 supports QuantizeLinear/DequantizeLinear that support per channel scales. We can use pytorch-quantization to do INT8 calibration, run quantization aware fine-tuning, generate ONNX and finally use TensorRT to run inference on this ONNX model. More detail can be found in PyTorch-Quantization Toolkit User Guide.

## 6. Working With Reformat-Free Network I/O Tensors

Requirements from Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) for safety flows require that accessing GPU address spaces should be removed from the NvMedia DLA safety path. To achieve this objective, reformat-free network I/O tensors are introduced to let you specify I/O formats that are supported by NvMedia tensor before passing the data to NVIDIA® TensorRT™.

On the other hand, the potential overhead of tensor reformatting can cause performance issues because TensorRT less than 6.0.1 assumes that network I/O tensors are FP32. In the case of multiple TensorRT sub-networks embedded into a large network (for example, TensorFlow), with a precision of INT8 or FP16, the unavoidable I/O reformatting from and to FP32 could waste considerable memory traffic time. The same issue can also happen on the user-defined plugins. Now you can explicitly specify network I/O tensors to INT8 or FP16 formats to eliminate unnecessary reformatting.

### 6.1. Building An Engine With Reformat-Free Network I/O Tensors

You can use the following API to specify formats of network I/O tensors.
C++ API:
network->getInput(i)->setAllowedFormats(formats);
network->getOutput(i)->setAllowedFormats(formats);

Where i is the index of network I/O tensors.
Python API:1
network.get_input(0).allowed_formats = formats
network.get_output(0).allowed_formats = formats

Where formats is the mask form of the dense enum TensorFormat which sets the memory layout of the tensor. For example, 1U << TensorFormat::kLINEAR or, in Python, 1 << int(tensorrt.TensorFormat.LINEAR).

BuilderFlag::kSTRICT_TYPES or tensorrt.BuilderFlag.STRICT_TYPES in Python can be explicitly set to generate an engine without reformatting rather than getting the fastest path. For example:

C++ API:
builderConfig->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kSTRICT_TYPES);

Python API:
builder_config.set_flag(tensorrt.BuilderFlag.STRICT_TYPES)

The flag can also be set via a bitmask manner as follows.

C++ API:
builderConfig->setFlags(flags);
Python API:
builder_config.flags = flags
Where flags is the bit mask combination of the dense enum BuilderFlags. For example, 1 << BuilderFlag::kFP16 | 1<< BuilderFlag::kSTRICT_TYPES or, in Python,
1 << int(tensorrt.BuilderFlag.FP16) | 1 <<
int(tensorrt.BuilderFlag.STRICT_TYPES)
If TensorRT doesn’t find any implementation of the reformat-free path, the following warning message displays:
‘[W] [TRT] Warning: no implementation obeys reformatting-free rules ...’

As a result, the fastest path is picked instead.

If the combination of data type and memory layout of I/O tensors is well chosen, the overall performance of the reformat-free path should be very close to the fastest path for most normal cases or else it is recommended to disable the reformat-free path.

For more information, refer to Specifying I/O Formats Using The Reformat Free I/O APIs (sampleReformatFreeIO) for an example of setting reformat-free network I/O tensors with these APIs using C++.

### 6.2. Supported Combination Of Data Type And Memory Layout of I/O Tensors

The supported settings of I/O tensors are listed in the following table.
Table 3. Supported combination of data types and memory layout.
Memory Layout \ Data Type kINT32 kFLOAT kHALF kINT8
kLINEAR Supported Supported Supported Supported
kCHW2 N/A N/A Supported N/A
kCHW4 N/A N/A Supported (including DLA) Supported (including DLA)
kHWC8 N/A N/A Supported N/A
kCHW16 N/A N/A Only for DLA N/A
kCHW32 N/A Supported Supported Supported (including DLA)
kDHWC8 N/A N/A Supported N/A
kCDHW32 N/A N/A Supported Supported
kHWC N/A Supported N/A N/A
kDLA_LINEAR N/A N/A Only for DLA Only for DLA
kDLA_HWC4 N/A N/A Only for DLA Only for DLA
kHWC16 N/A N/A Supported (on NVIDIA Ampere GPUs) N/A

### 6.3. Calibration For A Network With INT8 I/O Tensors

INT8 auto-calibration is supported by INT8 I/O tensors. In this case, you need to provide FP32 data for calibration and INT8 I/O tensors for inference.

With an INT8 I/O network, TensorRT expects calibration data to be in FP32 precision to generate a calibration cache. Calibration cache data is then internally used by the builder during inference with INT8 I/O tensors.

This limitation of INT8 I/O networks requiring FP32 calibration data is relaxed in future releases. For now, you can create FP32 calibration data by simply casting INT8 I/O calibration data to FP32 precision. You should also ensure that FP32 cast calibration data should be in the range [-128.0f, 127.0f] and can be converted to INT8 data without any precision loss.

Setting up a calibrator for a network with INT8 I/O tensors remains exactly the same as a network with FP32 I/O tensors.

### 6.4. Restrictions With DLA

DLA supports formats that are unique to the device and have constraints on their layout due to vector width byte requirements.

For DLA input, kDLA_LINEAR(FP16, INT8), kDLA_HWC4(FP16, INT8), kCHW16(FP16), and kCHW32(INT8) are supported. For DLA output, only kDLA_LINEAR(FP16, INT8), kCHW16(FP16), and kCHW32(INT8) are supported. For kCHW16 and kCHW32 formats, the C channel count is recommended to be equivalent to a positive integer multiple of the vector size. If C is not an integer multiple, then it must be padded to the next 32-byte boundary.

For kDLA_LINEAR format, the stride along the W dimension must be padded up to 64 bytes. The memory layout is equivalent to a C array with dimensions [N][C][H][roundUp(W, 64/elementSize)] where elementSize is 2 for FP16 and 1 for Int8, with the tensor coordinates (n, c, h, w) mapping to array subscript [n][c][h][w].

For kDLA_HWC4 format, the stride along the W dimension must be a multiple of 32 bytes.
• When C == 1, TensorRT maps the format to the native grayscale image format.
• When C == 3 or C == 4, it maps to the native color image format. If C == 3, the stride for stepping along the W axis needs to be padded to 4 in elements.

In this case, the padded channel is located at the 4th-index. Ideally, the padding value doesn't matter because the 4th channel in the weights is padded to zero by the DLA compiler; however, it is safe for the application to allocate a zero-filled buffer of four channels and populate three valid channels.

• When C is {1, 3, 4}, then padded C' is {1, 4, 4} respectively, the memory layout is equivalent to a C array with dimensions [N][H][roundUp(W, 32/C'/elementSize)][C'] where elementSize is 2 for FP16 and 1 for Int8. The tensor coordinates (n, c, h, w) mapping to array subscript [n][h][w][c]roundUp calculates the smallest multiple of 64/elementSize greater than or equal to W.
When using kDLA_HWC4 as DLA input format, it has the following requirements:
• C must be 1, 3, or 4
• The first layer must be convolution.
• The convolution parameters must meet DLA requirements, refer to DLA Supported Layers.

When the EngineCapability is EngineCapability::kDEFAULT and TensorRT cannot generate a reformat free network for the given input/output formats, the unsupported DLA formats can be automatically converted into supported DLA format. For example, if the layers connected to the network inputs or outputs cannot run on DLA or if the network does not meet other DLA requirements, reformat operations are inserted to satisfy constraints. In all cases, the strides that TensorRT expects data to be formatted with can be obtained by querying IExecutionContext::getStrides.

TensorRT doesn't provide native APIs to run EngineCapability::kDLA_STANDALONE engines. Serializing an engine with EngineCapability::kDLA_STANDALONE produces an NVDLA loadable that is only consumable by NvMedia DLA API directly and requires all input formats to match exactly without reformatting layers.

If you specify that multiple DLA formats are allowed with EngineCapability::kDLA_STANDALONE, TensorRT doesn't provide native API to query which format matches input tensors of the NVDLA loadable. You could use NvMedia DLA API NvMediaDlaGetInputTensorDescriptor to get the input tensor descriptor (refer to NVIDIA DRIVE OS Linux SDK API Reference Documentation for more details).

### 6.5. FAQs

This section is to help troubleshoot the most asked questions when using reformat-free network I/O tensors.

### Q: Why are reformatting layers observed although there is no warning message no implementation obeys reformatting-free rules ...?

A: Reformat-free network I/O does not mean there are no reformatting layers inserted in the entire network. Only the input and output network tensors have a possibility not to require reformatting layers. In other words, reformatting layers can be inserted by TensorRT for internal tensors to improve performance.

### Q: What is the best practice to use reformat-free network I/O tensors for DLA?

A: First, you have to check if your network can run entirely on DLA, then try to build the network by specifying kDLA_LINEAR, kDLA_HWC4 or kCHW16/32 format as allowed I/O formats. If multiple formats can work, you can profile them and choose the fastest I/O format combination. If your network indeed performs better with kDLA_HWC4, but it doesn't work, you have to check which requirement listed in the previous section is unsatisfied.

## 7. Working With Dynamic Shapes

Dynamic shapes are the ability to defer specifying some or all tensor dimensions until runtime. Dynamic shapes can be used via both the C++ and Python interfaces.

The following sections provide greater detail; however, here’s an overview of the steps for building an engine with dynamic shapes:

1. The network definition must not have an implicit batch dimension.
C++
Create the INetworkDefinition by calling
IBuilder::createNetworkV2(1U <<
static_cast<int>(NetworkDefinitionCreationFlag::kEXPLICIT_BATCH))
Python
Create the tensorrt.INetworkDefinition by calling
create_network(1 <<
int(tensorrt.NetworkDefinitionCreationFlag.EXPLICIT_BATCH))
These calls request that the network not have an implicit batch dimension.
2. Specify each runtime dimension of an input tensor by using -1 as a placeholder for the dimension.
3. Specify one or more optimization profiles at build time that specify the permitted range of dimensions for inputs with runtime dimensions, and the dimensions for which the auto-tuner should optimize. For more information, refer to Optimization Profiles.
4. To use the engine:
1. Create an execution context from the engine, the same as without dynamic shapes.
2. Specify one of the optimization profiles from step 3 that covers the input dimensions.
3. Specify the input dimensions for the execution context. After setting input dimensions, you can get the output dimensions that TensorRT computes for the given input dimensions.
4. Enqueue work.
To change the runtime dimensions, repeat steps 4b and 4c, which do not have to be repeated until the input dimensions change.

### 7.1. Specifying Runtime Dimensions

When building a network, use -1 to denote a runtime dimension for an input tensor. For example, to create a 3D input tensor named foo where the last two dimensions are specified at runtime, and the first dimension is fixed at build time, issue the following.
C++
networkDefinition.addInput("foo", DataType::kFLOAT, Dims3(3, -1, -1))
Python
network_definition.add_input("foo", trt.float32,(3, -1, -1))
At run time, you’ll need to set the input dimensions after choosing an optimization profile (refer to Optimization Profiles). Let the bindingIndex of input foo be 0, and the input have dimensions [3,150,250]. After setting an optimization profile for the previous example, you would call:
C++
context.setBindingDimensions(0, Dims3(3, 150, 250))
Python
context.set_binding_shape(0, (3, 150, 250))
At runtime, asking the engine for binding dimensions returns the same dimensions used to build the network, meaning, you get a -1 for each runtime dimension. For example:
C++
engine.getBindingDimensions(0) returns a Dims with dimensions {3, -1, -1}.
Python
engine.get_binding_shape(0) returns (3, -1, -1).
To get the actual dimensions, which are specific to each execution context, query the execution context:
C++
context.getBindingDimensions(0) returns a Dims with dimensions {3, 150, 250}.
Python
context.get_binding_shape(0) returns (3, 150, 250).
Note: The return value of setBindingDimensions for an input only indicates consistency with respect to the optimization profile set for that input. After all input binding dimensions are specified, you can check whether the entire network is consistent with respect to the dynamic input shapes by querying the dimensions of the output bindings of the network.
nvinfer1::Dims out_dim = context->getBindingDimensions(out_index);

if (out_dim.nbDims == -1) {
gLogError << "Invalid network output, this might be caused by inconsistent input shapes." << std::endl;
// abort inference
}


### 7.2. Optimization Profiles

An optimization profile describes a range of dimensions for each network input and the dimensions that the auto-tuner should use for optimization. When using runtime dimensions, you must create at least one optimization profile at build time. Two profiles can specify disjoint or overlapping ranges.

For example, one profile might specify a minimum size of [3,100,200], a maximum size of [3,200,300], and optimization dimensions of [3,150,250] while another profile might specify min, max and optimization dimensions of [3,200,100], [3,300,400], and [3,250,250].

To create an optimization profile, first construct an IOptimizationProfile. Then set the min, optimization, and max dimensions, and add it to the network configuration. The shapes defined by the optimization profile must define valid input shapes for the network. Here are the calls for the first profile mentioned previously for an input foo:
C++
IOptimizationProfile* profile = builder.createOptimizationProfile();
profile->setDimensions("foo", OptProfileSelector::kMIN, Dims3(3,100,200);
profile->setDimensions("foo", OptProfileSelector::kOPT, Dims3(3,150,250);
profile->setDimensions("foo", OptProfileSelector::kMAX, Dims3(3,200,300);


Python
profile = builder.create_optimization_profile();
profile.set_shape("foo", (3, 100, 200), (3, 150, 250), (3, 200, 300))

At runtime, you need to set an optimization profile before setting input dimensions. Profiles are numbered in the order they were added, starting at 0. To choose the first optimization profile in the example, use:
C++
call context.setOptimizationProfileAsync(0, stream)

where stream is the CUDA stream that is used for the subsequent enqueue() or enqueueV2() invocation in this context.

Python
set context.set_optimization_profile_async(0, stream)

If the associated CUDA engine has dynamic inputs, the optimization profile must be set at least once with a unique profile index that is not used by other execution contexts that are not destroyed. For the first execution context that is created for an engine, profile 0 is chosen implicitly.

setOptimizationProfileAsync() can be called to switch between profiles. It must be called after any enqueue() or enqueueV2() operations finish in the current context. When multiple execution contexts run concurrently, it is allowed to switch to a profile that was formerly used but already released by another execution context with different dynamic input dimensions.

setOptimizationProfileAsync() function replaces the now deprecated version of the API setOptimizationProfile(). Using setOptimizationProfile() to switch between optimization profiles can cause GPU memory copy operations in the subsequent enqueue() or enqueueV2() operations operation. To avoid these calls during enqueue, use setOptimizationProfileAsync() API instead.

In an engine built from multiple profiles, there are separate binding indices for each profile. The names of input/output tensors for the Kth profile have [profile K] appended to them, with K written in decimal. For example, if the INetworkDefinition had the name “foo“, and bindingIndex refers to that tensor in the optimization profile with index 3, engine.getBindingName(bindingIndex) returns “foo [profile 3]“.

Likewise, if using ICudaEngine::getBindingIndex(name) to get the index for a profile K beyond the first profile (K=0), append “[profile K]“ to the name used in the INetworkDefinition. For example, if the tensor was called “foo“ in the INetworkDefinition, then engine.getBindingIndex(foo [profile 3]) returns the binding index of Tensor “foo" in optimization profile 3.

Always omit the suffix for K=0.

### 7.2.1. Bindings For Multiple Optimization Profiles

TensorRT 7.1 is stricter about binding indices than its predecessors. Previously, binding indices for the wrong profile were tolerated. Consider a network with four inputs, one output, with three optimization profiles in the IBuilderConfig. The engine has 15 bindings, five for each optimization profile, conceptually organized as a table:
Figure 13. Optimization profile

Each row is a profile. Numbers in the table denote binding indices. The first profile has binding indices 0..4, the second has 5..9, and the third has 10..14. Prior to version 7.1, where a profile index was specified or implied, TensorRT accepted binding numbers for the wrong profile, using the binding index only to determine the column. In TensorRT 7.1, the binding index must be correct; otherwise, refer to an API check failure that mentions bindingIndexBelongsToProfile.

For the sake of backward semi-compatibility, the interfaces have an “auto-correct” for the case that the binding belongs to the first profile, but another profile was specified. In that case, TensorRT warns about the mistake and then chooses the correct binding index from the same column.

### 7.3. Layer Extensions For Dynamic Shapes

Some layers have optional inputs that allow specifying dynamic shape information, and there is a new layer IShapeLayer for accessing the shape of a tensor at runtime. Furthermore, some layers allow calculating new shapes. The next section goes into semantic details and restrictions. Here is a summary of what you might find useful in conjunction with dynamic shapes.

IShapeLayer outputs a 1D tensor containing the dimensions of the input tensor. For example, if the input tensor has dimensions [2,3,5,7], the output tensor is a four-element 1D tensor containing {2,3,5,7}. If the input tensor is a scalar, it has dimensions [], and the output tensor is a zero-element 1D tensor containing {}.

IResizeLayer accepts an optional second input containing the desired dimensions of the output.

IShuffleLayer accepts an optional second input containing the reshape dimensions before the second transpose is applied. For example, the following network reshapes a tensor Y to have the same dimensions as X:
C++
    auto* reshape = networkDefinition.addShuffle(Y);

Python
    reshape = network_definition.add_shuffle(y)


Shuffle operations that are equivalent to identity operations on the underlying data is omitted if the input tensor is only used in the shuffle layer and the input and output tensors of this layer are not input and output tensors of the network. TensorRT no longer executes additional kernels or memory copies for such operations.

ISliceLayer accepts an optional second, third, and fourth inputs containing the start, size, and stride.

IConcatenationLayer, IElementWiseLayer, IGatherLayer, IIdentityLayer, and
IReduceLayer
can be used to do calculations on shapes and create new shape tensors.

### 7.4. Restrictions For Dynamic Shapes

The following layer restrictions arise because the layer’s weights have a fixed size:
• IConvolutionLayer and IDeconvolutionLayer require that the channel dimension be a build-time constant.
• IFullyConnectedLayer requires that the last three dimensions be build-time constants.
• Int8 requires that the channel dimension be a build-time constant.
• Layers accepting additional shape inputs (IResizeLayer, IShuffleLayer, ISliceLayer) require that the additional shape inputs be compatible with the dimensions of the minimum and maximum optimization profiles as well as with the dimensions of the runtime data input; otherwise, it can lead to either a build-time or runtime error.

Values that must be build-time constants don’t have to be constants at the API level. TensorRT’s shape analyzer does element-by-element constant propagation through layers that do shape calculations. It’s sufficient that the constant propagation discovers that a value is a build-time constant.

### 7.5. Execution Tensors vs. Shape Tensors

Engines using dynamic shapes employ a two-phase execution strategy.
1. Compute the shapes of all tensors
2. Stream work to the GPU.

Phase 1 is implicit and driven by demand, such as when output dimensions are requested. Phase 2 is the same as in prior versions of TensorRT. The two-phase execution puts some limits on dynamism that are important to understand.

The key limits are:
• The rank of a tensor must be determinable at build time.
• A tensor is either an execution tensor, shape tensor, or both. Tensors classified as shape tensors are subject to limits.

An execution tensor is a traditional TensorRT tensor. A shape tensor is a tensor that is related to shape calculations. It must be 0D or 1D, have type Int32 or Bool, and its shape must be determinable at build time. For example, there is an IShapeLayer whose output is a 1D tensor containing the dimensions of the input tensor. The output is a shape tensor. IShuffleLayer accepts an optional second input that can specify reshaping dimensions. The second input must be a shape tensor.

Some layers are “polymorphic” with respect to the kinds of tensors they handle. For example, IElementWiseLayer can sum two Int32 execution tensors or sum two Int32 shape tensors. The type of tensor depends on its ultimate use. If the sum is used to reshape another tensor, then it is a “shape tensor.”

### 7.5.1. Formal Inference Rules

The formal inference rules used by TensorRT for classifying tensors are based on a type-inference algebra. Let E denote an execution tensor and S denote a shape tensor.
IActivationLayer has the signature:
IActivationLayer: E → E
since it takes an execution tensor as an input and an execution tensor as an output. IElementWiseLayer is polymorphic in this respect, with two signatures:
IElementWiseLayer: S × S → S, E × E → E
For brevity, let’s adopt the convention that tis a variable denoting either class of tensor, and all tin a signature refers to the same class of tensor. Then, the two previous signatures can be written as a single polymorphic signature:
IElementWiseLayer: t × t → t
The two-input IShuffleLayer has a shape tensor as the second input and is polymorphic with respect to the first input:
IShuffleLayer (two inputs): t × S → t
IConstantLayer has no inputs, but can produce a tensor of either kind, so its signature is:
IConstantLayer: → t
The signature for IShapeLayer allows all four possible combinations E→E, E→S, S→E, and S→S, so it can be written with two independent variables:
IShapeLayer: t1 → t2

Here is the complete set of rules, which also serves as a reference for which layers can be used to manipulate shape tensors:
IConcatenationLayer: t × t × ...→ t
IConstantLayer: → t
IElementWiseLayer: t × t → t
IGatherLayer: t × t → t
IIdentityLayer: t → t
IReduceLayer: t → t
IResizeLayer (one input): E → E
IResizeLayer (two inputs): E × S → E
ISelectLayer: t × t × t → t
IShapeLayer: t1 → t2
IShuffleLayer (one input): t → t
IShuffleLayer (two inputs): t × S → t
ISliceLayer (one input): t → t
ISliceLayer (two inputs): t × S → t
ISliceLayer (three inputs): t × S × S → t
ISliceLayer (four inputs): t × S × S × S → t
all other layers: E × ... → E × ...


Because an output can be the input of more than one subsequent layer, the inferred “types” are not exclusive. For example, an IConstantLayer might feed into one use that requires an execution tensor and another use that requires a shape tensor. The output of IConstantLayer is classified as both and can be used in both phase 1 and phase 2 of the two-phase execution.

The requirement that the rank of a shape tensor be known at build time limits how ISliceLayer can be used to manipulate a shape tensor. Specifically, if the third parameter, which specifies the size of the result, is not a build-time constant, the length of the resulting shape tensor would no longer be known at build time, breaking the restriction of shape tensors to build-time shapes. Worse, it might be used to reshape another tensor, breaking the restriction that tensor ranks must be known at build time.

TensorRT’s inferences can be inspected via methods ITensor::isShapeTensor(), which returns true for a shape tensor, and ITensor::isExecutionTensor(), which returns true for an execution tensor. Build the entire network first before calling these methods because their answer can change depending on what uses of the tensor have been added.

For example, if a partially built network sums two tensors, T1 and T2, to create tensor T3, and none are yet needed as shape tensors, isShapeTensor() returns false for all three tensors. Setting the second input of IShuffleLayer to T3 would cause all three tensors to become shape tensors because IShuffleLayer requires that its second optional input be a shape tensor, and if the output of IElementWiseLayer is a shape tensor, its inputs are too.

### 7.6. Shape Tensor I/O (Advanced)

Sometimes the need arises to do shape tensor I/O for a network. For example, consider a network consisting solely of an IShuffleLayer. TensorRT infers that the second input is a shape tensor. ITensor::isShapeTensor returns true for it. Because it is an input shape tensor, TensorRT requires two things for it:
• At build time: the optimization profile values of the shape tensor.
• At run time: the values of the shape tensor.

The shape of an input shape tensor is always known at build time. It’s the values that need to be described since they can be used to specify the dimensions of execution tensors.

The optimization profile values can be set using IOptimizationProfile::setShapeValues. Analogous to how min, max, and optimization dimensions must be supplied for execution tensors with runtime dimensions, min, max and optimization values must be provided for shape tensors at build time.

The corresponding runtime method is IExecutionContext::setInputShapeBinding, which sets the values of the shape tensor at runtime.

Because the inference of “execution tensor” vs “shape tensor” is based on ultimate use, TensorRT cannot infer whether a network output is a shape tensor. You must to tell it via the method INetworkDefinition::markOutputForShapes.

Besides letting you output shape information for debugging, this feature is useful for composing engines. For example, consider building three engines, one each for sub-networks A, B, C, where a connection from A to B or B to C might involve a shape tensor. Build the networks in reverse order: C, B, and A. After constructing network C, you can use ITensor::isShapeTensor to determine if an input is a shape tensor, and use INetworkDefinition::markOutputForShapes to mark the corresponding output tensor in network B. Then check which inputs of B are shape tensors and mark the corresponding output tensor in network A.

Shape tensors at network boundaries must have type Int32. They cannot have type Bool.

### 7.7. INT8 Calibration With Dynamic Shapes

To run INT8 calibration for a network with dynamic shapes, a calibration optimization profile must be set. Calibration is performed using kOPT values of the profile. Calibration input data size must match this profile.
To create a calibration optimization profile, first, construct an IOptimizationProfile the same way as it is done for a general optimization profile. Then set the profile to the configuration:
C++
config->setCalibrationProfile(profile)
Python
config.set_calibration_profile(profile)

The calibration profile must be valid or be nullptr. kMIN and kMAX values are overwritten by kOPT. To check the current calibration profile, useIBuilderConfig::getCalibrationProfile.

This method returns a pointer to the current calibration profile or nullptr if the calibration profile is unset. getBatchSize() calibrator method must return 1 when running calibration for a network with dynamic shapes.
Note: If the calibration optimization profile is not set, the first network optimization profile are used as a calibration optimization profile.

## 8. Working With Empty Tensors

NVIDIA® TensorRT™ supports empty tensors. A tensor is an empty tensor if it has one or more dimensions with length zero. Zero-length dimensions usually get no special treatment. If a rule works for a dimension of length L for an arbitrary positive value of L, it usually works for L=0 too.

For example, when concatenating two tensors with dimensions [x,y,z] and [x,y,w] along the last axis, the result has dimensions [x,y,z+w], regardless of whether x, y, z, or w is zero.

Implicit broadcast rules remain unchanged since only unit-length dimensions are special for broadcast. For example, given two tensors with dimensions [1,y,z] and [x,1,z], their sum computed by IElementWiseLayer has dimensions [x,y,z], regardless of whether x, y, or z is zero.

Note that if an engine binding is an empty tensor, at least one byte of memory still needs to be allocated for it.

### 8.1. IReduceLayer And Empty Tensors

If all inputs to a layer are empty, the output is usually empty, but there are exceptions. The exceptions arise from how reduction over an empty set is defined in mathematics: Reduction over an empty set yields the identity element for the operation.
The following table shows cases relevant to TensorRT:
Reduction Operation kFLOAT & kHALF kINT32 kINT8
kSUM 0 0 0
kPROD 1 1 1
kMAX INT_MAX -128
kMIN -∞ INT_MIN 127
kAVG NaN 0 -128

The average empty set is mathematically ill-defined. The obvious definition (sum of elements)/(number of elements) yields 0/0. It’s represented by “Not a Number” (NaN) for floating-point. The 0 for kAVG over an empty set of kINT32 has no mathematical justification and was chosen for compatibility with TensorFlow.

TensorRT usually performs reduction for kINT8 via kFLOAT or kHALF. The kINT8 values show the quantized representations of the floating-point values, not their dequantized values.

### 8.2. IMatrixMultiplyLayer, IFullyConnectedLayer, And Empty Tensors

Multiplying matrices with dimensions [m,0] and [0,n] results in a matrix of zeros with dimensions [m,n]. It’s zeros because each element of the result is the sum over an empty set of products.

IFullyConnectedLayer is fundamentally a matrix multiplication, so similar rules apply.

### 8.3. Plugins And Empty Tensors

Plugins that need to handle empty tensors must be written with IPluginV2Ext, IPluginV2IOExt, or IPluginV2DynamicExt.
Warning: Empty tensors can have properties not seen for non-empty tensors:
• a volume of zero
• one or more strides equal to zero

The volume of zero can break kernel launching logic since a common approach is to set the number of CUDA blocks proportional to the volume being processed. CUDA reports an error for launching a kernel with zero blocks. Hence plugins should be careful about avoiding such launches.

Strides should be calculated the same as for non-empty tensors. For example, given a tensor with dimensions [N,C,H,W], the stride of the memory representation corresponding to an increment along the C axis is H*W. It doesn’t matter if H or W is zero. Though make sure that your code does not divide by a stride or dimension that could be zero. For example, the assertion in the following fragment risks dividing by zero in both divisions:
int volume = N*C*H*W;
int cStride = H*W;
...
assert(C == volume/N/cStride);

For some plugins, an effective strategy is to make the plugin’s method enqueue return early if all outputs are empty, and thereby not complicate the rest of the logic with consideration of zero-length dimensions.

### 8.4. IRNNv2Layer And Empty Tensors

IRNNv2Layer works for empty tensors but was deprecated in TensorRT 7.2.1 and are removed in TensorRT 9.0. Use a loop to synthesize a recurrent sub-network as discussed in the Working With Loops section.

IRNNLayer has been deprecated since TensorRT 4.0 and was removed in TensorRT 8.0.

### 8.5. IShuffleLayer And Empty Tensors

By default, IShuffleLayer treats a 0 in the reshape dimensions as a special placeholder, and not meaning zero. The placeholder means “copy the corresponding input dimension.” This default behavior has been kept for compatibility with earlier versions of TensorRT but is hazardous when working with empty tensors.
If you are reshaping to dimensions that might include a zero-length dimension, disable the placeholder treatment of zero with the IShuffleLayer::setZeroIsPlaceholder method.
IShuffleLayer* s = ...;
s->setZeroIsPlaceholder(false);

For example, consider the following code that intends to reshape a tensor input to dimensions specified by shape tensor reshapeDims.
IShuffleLayer* s = network.addShuffle(input);
s->setInput(1, reshapeDims);
#if CORRECT
s->setZeroIsPlaceholder(false);
#endif
output = *s->getOutput(0);

Suppose at runtime, the input has dimensions [3,0], and the second input reshapeDims contains [0,0]. If the engine was built with CORRECT==0, the zeros in reshapeDims are interpreted as placeholders for input dimensions, and the output has dimensions [3,0], not [0,0] as intended. Building the fragment with CORRECT==1 ensures that the IShuffleLayer treats zero as zero. Unless you know that you need the placeholder feature, it is recommended that it be turned off with setZeroIsPlaceholder(false).

Empty tensors also introduce the possibility of a new kind of error when using the -1 wildcard in reshape dimensions. The wildcard denotes an unknown dimension x that TensorRT solves using the equation:
x *  (volume of other reshape dimension) = volume(input
tensor)
If the volume of the other reshape dimensions is zero, one of two errors occur:
• The volume of the input tensor is zero. Then x is indeterminate.
• The volume of the input tensor is nonzero. Then x has no solution.

TensorRT reports an error in either case, possibly at build time or run time.

### 8.6. ISliceLayer And Empty Tensors

The behavior of ISliceLayer for empty tensors follows a strict interpretation of its semantics. Specifically, consider slicing a dimension of length L with parameters start, size, and stride.

Constructing the output tensor requires subscripting the half-open interval [0,L) with generated indices of the form start+i*stride for all i, such that 0 ≤ i < size. All the generated indices must be in bounds. However, with size=0, no indices are generated, and thus no bounds checking applies. So for size=0, the start and stride parameters do not matter and can be any values.

Conversely, if L=0 and size≠0, then TensorRT reports an error since the half-open interval [0,L) becomes empty, and the generated indices are inherently out of bounds.

### 8.7. IConvolutionLayer And Empty Tensors

Convolution with zero input channels (for example, [n, 0, h, w]) results in a tensor of zeros with dimensions [n, k, p, q], before adding the bias, because each element of the result is a sum over an empty set of products.

## 9. Working With Loops

NVIDIA® TensorRT™ supports loop-like constructs, which can be useful for recurrent networks. TensorRT loops support scanning over input tensors, recurrent definitions of tensors, and both “scan outputs” and “last value” outputs.

### 9.1. Defining A Loop

A loop is defined by loop boundary layers.
• ITripLimitLayer specifies how many times the loop iterates.
• IIteratorLayer enables a loop to iterate over a tensor.
• IRecurrenceLayer specifies a recurrent definition.
• ILoopOutputLayer specifies an output from the loop.

Each of the boundary layers inherits from class ILoopBoundaryLayer, which has a method getLoop() for getting its associated ILoop. The ILoop object identifies the loop. All loop boundary layers with the same ILoop belong to that loop.

Figure 14 depicts the structure of a loop and data flow at the boundary. Loop-invariant tensors can be used inside the loop directly, such as shown for FooLayer.
Figure 14. A TensorRT loop is set by loop boundary layers. Dataflow can leave the loop only via ILoopOutputLayer. The only back edges allowed are the second input to IRecurrenceLayer.

A loop can have multiple IIteratorLayer, IRecurrenceLayer, and ILoopOutputLayer, and at most two ITripLimitLayers as explained later. A loop with no ILoopOutputLayer has no output and is optimized away by TensorRT.

The interior of the loop can have the following kinds of layers:
• IActivationLayer if the operation is one of:
• kRELU
• kSIGMOID
• kTANH
• kELU
• IConcatenationLayer
• IConstantLayer
• IIdentityLayer
• IFullyConnectedLayer
• IMatrixMultiplyLayer
• IElementWiseLayer
• IPluginV2Layer
• IScaleLayer
• ISliceLayer
• ISelectLayer
• IShuffleLayer
• ISoftMaxLayer
• IUnaryLayer if the operation is one of:
• kABS
• kCEIL
• kEXP
• kFLOOR
• kLOG
• kNEG
• kNOT
• kRECIP
• kSQRT

Interior layers are free to use tensors defined inside or outside the loop. The interior can contain other loops (refer to Nested Loops).

To define a loop, first, create an ILoop object with the method INetworkDefinition::addLoop. Then add the boundary and interior layers. The rest of this section describes the features of the boundary layers, using loop to denote the ILoop* returned by INetworkDefinition::addLoop.

ITripLimitLayer supports both counted loops and while-loops.
• loop->addTripLimit(t,TripLimit::kCOUNT) creates an ITripLimitLayer whose input t is a 0D Int32 tensor that specifies the number of loop iterations.

• loop->addTripLimit(t,TripLimit::kWHILE) creates an ITripLimitLayer whose input t is a 0D Bool tensor that specifies whether an iteration should occur. Typically t is either the output of an IRecurrenceLayer or a calculation based on said output.

A loop can have at most one of each kind of limit.
IIteratorLayer supports iterating forwards or backward over any axis.
• loop->addIterator(t) adds an IIteratorLayer that iterates over axis 0 of tensor t. For example, if the input is the matrix:
2 3 5
4 6 8

the output is the 1D tensor {2, 3, 5} on the first iteration and {4, 6, 8} for the second iteration. It’s invalid to iterate beyond the tensor’s bounds.
• loop->addIterator(t,axis) is similar, but the layer iterates over the given axis. For example, if axis=1 and the input is a matrix, each iteration delivers a column of the matrix.

• loop->addIterator(t,axis,reverse) is similar, but the layer produces its output in reverse order if reverse=true.

ILoopOutputLayer supports three forms of loop output:
• loop->addLoopOutput(t,LoopOutput::kLAST_VALUE) outputs the last value of t, where t must be the output of a IRecurrenceLayer.

• loop->addLoopOutput(t,LoopOutput::kCONCATENATE,axis) outputs the concatenation of each iteration’s input to t. For example, if the input is a 1D tensor, with value {a,b,c} on the first iteration and {d,e,f} on the second iteration, and axis=0, the output is the matrix:
a b c
d e f

If axis=1, the output is:
a d
b e
c f

• loop->addLoopOutput(t,LoopOutput::kREVERSE,axis) is similar, but reverses the order.

Both the kCONCATENATE and kREVERSE forms of ILoopOutputLayer require a 2nd input, which is a 0D INT32 shape tensor specifying the length of the new output dimension. When the length is greater than the number of iterations, the extra elements contain arbitrary values. The second input, for example u, should be set using ILoopOutputLayer::setInput(1,u).

Finally, there is IRecurrenceLayer. Its first input specifies the initial output value, and its second input specifies the next output value. The first input must come from outside the loop; the second input usually comes from inside the loop. For example, the TensorRT analog of this C++ fragment:
for (int32_t i = j; ...; i += k) ...
could be created by these calls, where j and k are ITensor*.
ILoop* loop = n.addLoop();
IRecurrenceLayer* iRec = loop->addRecurrence(j);
ITensor* i = iRec->getOutput(0);
ITensor* iNext = addElementWise(*i, *k,
iRec->setInput(1, *iNext);


The second input to IRecurrenceLayer is the only case where TensorRT allows a back edge. If such inputs are removed, the remaining network must be acyclic.

### 9.2. Formal Semantics

TensorRT has applicative semantics, meaning there are no visible side effects other than engine inputs and outputs. Because there are no side effects, intuitions about loops from imperative languages do not always work. This section defines formal semantics for TensorRT’s loop constructs.

The formal semantics is based on lazy sequences of tensors. Each iteration of a loop corresponds to an element in the sequence. The sequence for a tensor X inside the loop is denoted X0, X1, X2, ...⟩. Elements of the sequence are evaluated lazily, meaning, as needed.

The output from IIteratorLayer(X) is ⟨X[0], X[1], X[2], ...⟩ where X[i] denotes subscripting on the axis specified for the IIteratorLayer.

The output from IRecurrenceLayer(X,Y)is ⟨X, Y0, Y1, Y2, ...⟩.

The input and output from an ILoopOutputLayer depend on the kind of LoopOutput.
• kLAST_VALUE: Input is a single tensor X, and output is Xn for an n-trip loop.

• kCONCATENATE: The first input is a tensor X, and the second input is a scalar shape tensor Y. The result is the concatenation of X0, X1, X2, ... Xn-1 with post padding, if necessary, to the length specified by Y. It is a runtime error if Y < n. Y is a build-time constant. Note the inverse relationship with IIteratorLayer. IIteratorLayer maps a tensor to a sequence of subtensors; ILoopOutputLayer with kCONCATENATE maps a sequence of sub-tensors to a tensor.

• kREVERSE: Similar to kCONCATENATE, but the output is in the reverse direction.

The value of n in the definitions for the output of ILoopOutputLayer is determined by the ITripLimitLayer for the loop:
• For counted loops, it’s the iteration count, meaning the input to the ITripLimitLayer.

• For while loops, it’s the least n such that Xn is false, where X is the sequence for the ITripLimitLayer’s input tensor.

The output from a non-loop layer is a sequence-wise application of the layer’s function. For example, for a two-input non-loop layer F(X,Y) = ⟨f(X0,Y0), f(X1,Y1), f(X2,Y2)...⟩. If a tensor comes from outside the loop, i.e. is loop-invariant, then the sequence for it is created by replicating the tensor.

### 9.3. Nested Loops

TensorRT infers the nesting of the loops from the data flow. For instance, if loop B uses values defined inside loop A, then B is considered to be nested inside of A.

TensorRT rejects networks where the loops are not cleanly nested, such as if loop A uses values defined in the interior of loop B and vice versa.

### 9.4. Limitations

A loop that refers to more than one dynamic dimension can take an unexpected amount of memory.

In a loop, memory is allocated as if all dynamic dimensions take on the maximum value of any of those dimensions. For example, if a loop refers to two tensors with dimensions [4,x,y] and [6,y], memory allocation for those tensors are as if their dimensions were [4,max(x,y),max(x,y)] and [6,max(x,y)].

The input to a LoopOutputLayer with kLAST_VALUE must be the output from an IRecurrenceLayer.

The loop API supports only FP32 and FP16 precision.

### 9.5. Replacing IRNNLayer And IRNNv2Layer With Loops

IRNNLayer was deprecated in TensorRT 4.0 and removed in TensorRT 8.0. IRNNv2Layer was deprecated in TensorRT 7.2.1 and will be removed in TensorRT 9.0. Use the loop API to synthesize a recurrent sub-network. For an example, refer to sampleCharRNN, method SampleCharRNNLoop::addLSTMCell. The loop API lets you express general recurrent networks instead of being limited to the prefabricated cells in IRNNLayer and IRNNv2Layer.

## 10. Working With DLA

NVIDIA® DLA™ (Deep Learning Accelerator) is a fixed-function accelerator engine targeted for deep learning operations. DLA is designed to do full hardware acceleration of convolutional neural networks. DLA supports various layers such as convolution, deconvolution, fully-connected, activation, pooling, batch normalization, etc. DLA does not support Explicit-Quantization.

For more information about DLA support in NVIDIA® TensorRT™ layers, refer to DLA Supported Layers. The trtexec tool has additional arguments to run networks on DLA, refer to trtexec.

To run the AlexNet network on DLA using trtexec in FP16 mode, issue:
 ./trtexec --deploy=data/AlexNet/AlexNet_N2.prototxt --output=prob --useDLACore=1 --fp16 --allowGPUFallback
To run the AlexNet network on DLA using trtexec in INT8 mode, issue:
 ./trtexec --deploy=data/AlexNet/AlexNet_N2.prototxt --output=prob --useDLACore=1 --int8 --allowGPUFallback

### 10.1. Running On DLA During TensorRT Inference

The TensorRT builder can be configured to enable inference on DLA. DLA support is currently limited to networks running in either FP16 or INT8 mode. The DeviceType enumeration is used to specify the device that the network or layer executes on. The following API functions in the IBuilderConfig class can be used to configure the network to use DLA,
setDeviceType(ILayer* layer, DeviceType deviceType)

This function can be used to set the deviceType that the layer must execute on.

getDeviceType(const ILayer* layer)

This function can be used to return the deviceType that this layer executes on. If the layer is executing on the GPU, this returns DeviceType::kGPU.

canRunOnDLA(const ILayer* layer)

This function can be used to check if a layer can run on DLA.

setDefaultDeviceType(DeviceType deviceType)

This function sets the default deviceType to be used by the builder. It ensures that all the layers that can run on DLA runs on DLA unless setDeviceType is used to override the deviceType for a layer.

getDefaultDeviceType()

This function returns the default deviceType which was set by setDefaultDeviceType.

isDeviceTypeSet(const ILayer* layer)

This function checks whether the deviceType has been explicitly set for this layer.

resetDeviceType(ILayer* layer)

This function resets the deviceType for this layer. The value is reset to the deviceType that is specified by setDefaultDeviceType or DeviceType::kGPU if none is specified.

allowGPUFallback(bool setFallBackMode)

This function notifies the builder to use GPU if a layer that was supposed to run on DLA cannot run on DLA. For more information, refer to GPU Fallback Mode.

reset()

This function can be used to reset the IBuilderConfig state, which sets the deviceType for all layers to be DeviceType::kGPU. After reset, the builder can be re-used to build another network with a different DLA config.

The following API functions in IBuilder class can be used to help configure the network for using the DLA:
getMaxDLABatchSize()
This function returns the maximum batch size DLA can support.
Note: For any tensor, the total volume of index dimensions combined with the requested batch size should not exceed the value returned by this function.
getNbDLACores()

This function returns the number of DLA cores available to the user.

If the builder is not accessible, such as in the case where a plan file is being loaded online in an inference application, then the DLA to be utilized can be specified differently by using DLA extensions to the IRuntime. The following API functions in the IRuntime class can be used to configure the network to use DLA:
getNbDLACores()

This function returns the number of DLA cores that are accessible to the user.

setDLACore(int dlaCore)

The DLA core to execute on. Where dlaCore is a value between 0 and getNbDLACores() - 1. The default value is 0.

getDLACore()

The DLA core the runtime execution is assigned to. The default value is 0.

### 10.1.1. Example: sampleMNIST With DLA

This section provides details on how to run a TensorRT sample with DLA enabled.

The "Hello World" For TensorRT (sampleMNIST) located in the GitHub repository, the sample demonstrates how to import a trained model, build the TensorRT engine, serialize and deserialize the engine and finally use the engine to perform inference.

The sample first creates the builder:
auto builder = SampleUniquePtr<nvinfer1::IBuilder>(nvinfer1::createInferBuilder(gLogger));
if (!builder) return false;
builder->setMaxBatchSize(batchSize);
config->setMaxWorkspaceSize(16_MB);
Then, enable GPUFallback mode:
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kGPU_FALLBACK);
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kFP16); or config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kINT8);

Enable execution on DLA, where dlaCore specifies the DLA core to execute on:
config->setDefaultDeviceType(DeviceType::kDLA);
config->setDLACore(dlaCore);

With these additional changes, sampleMNIST is ready to execute on DLA. To run sampleMNIST with DLA Core 1, use the following command:
 ./sample_mnist --useDLACore=1 [--int8|--fp16]

### 10.1.2. Example: Enable DLA Mode For A Layer During Network Creation

In this example, let’s create a simple network with input, convolution and output.

#### Procedure

1. Create the builder and the network:
IBuilder* builder = createInferBuilder(gLogger);
INetworkDefinition* network = builder->createNetworkV2(0U);

2. Add the Input layer to the network, with the input dimensions.
auto data = network->addInput(INPUT_BLOB_NAME, dt, Dims3{1, INPUT_H, INPUT_W});
3. Add the convolution layer with hidden layer input nodes, strides, and weights for filter and bias.
auto conv1 = network->addConvolution(*data->getOutput(0), 20, DimsHW{5, 5}, weightMap["conv1filter"], weightMap["conv1bias"]);
conv1->setStride(DimsHW{1, 1});

4. Set the convolution layer to run on DLA:
if(canRunOnDLA(conv1))
{
config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kFP16); or config->setFlag(BuilderFlag::kINT8);
builder->setDeviceType(conv1, DeviceType::kDLA);

}

5. Mark the output:
network->markOutput(*conv1->getOutput(0));

6. Set the DLA engine to execute on:
engine->setDLACore(0)


### 10.2. DLA Supported Layers

This section lists the layers supported by DLA along with the constraints associated with each layer.

### Generic restrictions while running on DLA (applicable to all layers)

• Max batch size supported is 32.
• The dimensions used for building must be used at runtime.
• The maximum size of weights supported by DLA is 512 MB.
• A DLA network can only support up to 1 GB of intermediate tensor data. Tensors that are the input and output to the DLA graph are not counted against this limit. TensorRT rejects networks that exceed this limit that are built without GPU fallback enabled.
• DLA supports wildcard dimensions on the leftmost dimension as long as the min, max, and opt values of the profile are equal.
• TensorRT can split a DLA network into multiple sections if any restriction is violated and GpuFallback is enabled. Otherwise, TensorRT can emit an error and fallback. For more information, refer to GPU Fallback Mode.
• At most, four DLA loadables can be in use concurrently due to hardware and software memory limitations.
Note: Batch size for DLA is the product of all index dimensions except the CHW dimensions. For example, if input dimensions are NPQRS, the effective batch size is N*P.

### Layer specific restrictions

Convolution and Fully Connected layers
• Only two spatial dimension operations are supported.
• Both FP16 and INT8 are supported.
• Each dimension of the kernel must be in the range [1, 32].
• Padding must be in the range [0, 31].
• Dimensions of padding must be less than the corresponding kernel dimension.
• Dimensions of stride must be in the range [1, 8].
• Number of output maps must be in the range [1, 8192].
• Number of groups must be in the range [1, 8192] for operations using the formats TensorFormat::kLINEAR, TensorFormat::kCHW16, and TensorFormat::kCHW32.
• Number of groups must be in the range [1, 4] for operations using the formats TensorFormat::kCHW4.
• Dilated convolution must be in the range [1, 32].
Deconvolution layer
• Only two spatial dimension operations are supported.
• Both FP16 and INT8 are supported.
• Dimensions of the kernel must be in the range[1, 32], in addition to 1x[64, 96, 128] and [64, 96, 128]x1.
• TensorRT has disabled deconvolution square kernels and strides in the range [23 - 32] on DLA as they significantly slow down compilation.
• The stride must be the same in each dimension as the kernel dimensions.
• Padding must be 0.
• Grouped deconvolution must be 1.
• Dilated deconvolutions must be 1.
• Number of input channels must be in the range [1, 8192].
• Number of output channels must be in the range [1, 8192].
Pooling layer
• Only two spatial dimension operations are supported.
• Both FP16 and INT8 are supported.
• Operations supported: kMAX, kAVERAGE.
• Dimensions of the window must be in the range [1, 8].
• Dimensions of padding must be in the range [0, 7].
• Dimensions of stride must be in the range [1, 16].
• Exclusive padding with kAVERAGE pooling is not supported.
• With INT8 mode, input and output tensor scales must be the same.
Activation layer
• Only two spatial dimension operations are supported.
• Both FP16 and INT8 are supported.
• Functions supported: ReLU, Sigmoid, TanH and Clipped ReLU.
• Negative slope is not supported for ReLU.
• Clipped ReLU only supports values in the range [1, 127].
• TanH, Sigmoid INT8 support is supported by auto-upgrading to FP16.
ElementWise layer
• Only two spatial dimension operations are supported.
• Both FP16 and INT8 are supported.
• Operations supported: Sum, Sub, Product, Max, and Min.
• Only Sum operation is supported in INT8.
Note: TensorRT concatenates a DLA Scale layer and a DLA ElementWise layer with the operation Sum to support the Sub operation, which is not supported by a single DLA ElementWise layer.
Scale layer
• Only two spatial dimension operations are supported.
• Both FP16 and INT8 are supported.
• Mode supported: Uniform, Per-Channel, and ElementWise.
• Only scale and shift operations are supported.
LRN (Local Response Normalization) layer
• Allowed window sizes are 3, 5, 7, or 9.
• Normalization region supported is ACROSS_CHANNELS.
• LRN INT8 is supported by auto-upgrading to FP16.
Concatenation layer
• DLA supports concatenation only along the channel axis.
• Concat must have at least two inputs.
Note: When running INT8 networks on the DLA using TensorRT, operations are recommended to be added to the same subgraph to reduce quantization errors across the subgraph of the network running on the DLA by allowing them to fuse and retain higher precision for intermediate results. Breaking apart the subgraph in order to inspect intermediate results by setting the tensors as Network output tensors can result in different levels of quantization errors due to these optimizations being disabled.

### 10.3. GPU Fallback Mode

The GPUFallbackMode sets the builder to use GPU if a layer that was marked to run on DLA could not run on DLA.
A layer cannot run on DLA due to the following reasons:
1. The layer operation is not supported on DLA.
2. The parameters specified are out of the supported range for DLA.
3. The given batch size exceeds the maximum permissible DLA batch size. For more information, refer to DLA Supported Layers.
4. A combination of layers in the network causes the internal state to exceed what the DLA is capable of supporting.
5. There are no DLA engines available on the platform.

If the GPUFallbackMode is set to false, a layer set to execute on DLA that couldn't run on DLA results in an error. However, with GPUFallbackMode set to true, it continues to execute on the GPU instead, after reporting a warning.

Similarly, if defaultDeviceType is set to DeviceType::kDLA and GPUFallbackMode is set to false, it results in an error if any of the layers can't run on DLA. With GPUFallbackMode set to true, it reports a warning and continue executing on the GPU.

If a combination of layers in the network cannot run on DLA, all layers in the combination executes on the GPU.

## 11. Working With Multi-Instance GPU (MIG)

Multi-instance GPU, or MIG, is a new feature in NVIDIA Ampere GPU architecture that enables user-directed partitioning of a single GPU into multiple smaller GPUs. This improves GPU utilization by enabling the GPU to be shared effectively by parallel compute workloads on bare metal, GPU pass through, or on multiple vGPUs.

The physical partitions provide dedicated compute and memory slices with QoS and independent execution of parallel workloads on fractions of the GPU SMs. For TensorRT applications with low GPU SM or memory utilization, partitioning the GPU into smaller instances can produce higher throughput at small or no impact on latency. The optimal partitioning scheme is application-specific.

MIG functionality is available in NVIDIA GPU drivers starting with the CUDA 11.0 release. For more information, refer to the NVIDIA Multi-Instance GPU User Guide.

### 11.1. GPU Partitioning

The NVIDIA Ampere GPU architecture supports eight independent GPU slices. Multiple GPU slices can be combined to create GPU instances. Each slice is a partition of the GPU memory and SMs resources; other engines (DMAs, NVDEC, etc.) continue to be shared resources.

GPU slices are a combination of GPU memory and SM slices. The NVIDIA Ampere GPU architecture has 7 GPU SM slices and 8 GPU memory slices (i.e, one GPU slice has no SMs).

A GPU instance is built from 1, 2, 4 or 8 naturally aligned GPU memory slices and all the available corresponding GPU SM slices. One exception is the GPU instance with 2 GPU memory slices and 1 GPU SM slice, which is not supported.

For more information, refer to the NVIDIA Multi-Instance GPU User Guide.

### 11.2. Impact On TensorRT Applications

The Multi-instance GPU (MIG) feature affects many internal components of the compute software stack; however, the user-visible impact is minimal.

TensorRT and CUDA applications treat a compute instance and its parent GPU instance as a single CUDA device (i.e., the MIG configuration is completely transparent to TensorRT APIs and the CUDA programming model).

### 11.3. Configuring NVIDIA MIG

The partitioning of GPU resources into slices is controlled by the Multi-instance GPU (MIG)-mode setting of the GPU.

Management of GPU instances is performed through the nvidia-smi CLI or nvml APIs. All the operations require MIG management privileges. For details on the MIG manager and GPU instance profiles, refer to the GPU Deployment and Management documentation.

## 12. Deploying A TensorRT Optimized Model

After you’ve created a plan file containing your optimized inference model, you can deploy that file into your production environment. How you create and deploy the plan file depends on your environment. For example, you may have a dedicated inference executable for your model that loads the plan file and then uses the NVIDIA® TensorRT™ Execution API to pass inputs to the model, execute the model to perform inference, and finally read outputs from the model.

This section discusses how TensorRT can be deployed in some common deployment environments.

### 12.1. Deploying In The Cloud

One common cloud deployment strategy for inferencing is to expose a model through a server that implements an HTTP REST or gRPC endpoint for the model. A remote client can then perform inferencing by sending a properly formatted request to that endpoint. The request selects a model, provides the necessary input tensor values required by the model, and indicates which model outputs should be calculated.

To take advantage of TensorRT optimized models within this deployment strategy does not require any fundamental change. The inference server must be updated to accept models represented by TensorRT plan files and must use the TensorRT Execution APIs to load and execute those plans. An example of an inference server that provides a REST endpoint for inferencing can be found in the NVIDIA Triton Inference Server Container Release Notes and NVIDIA Triton Inference Server Guide.

### 12.2. Deploying To An Embedded System

TensorRT can also be used to deploy trained networks to embedded systems such as NVIDIA Drive. In this context, deployment means taking the network and using it in a software application running on the embedded device, such as object detection or mapping service. Deploying a trained network to an embedded system involves the following steps:

### Procedure

1. Export the trained network to ONNX, which can be imported into TensorRT (refer to Working With Deep Learning Frameworks for more details).
2. Write a program that uses the TensorRT C++ API to import, optimize, and serialize the trained network to a plan file (refer to Working With Deep Learning Frameworks, Working With Mixed Precision, and Performing Inference In C++). For the purpose of discussion, let’s call this program make_plan.
1. Optionally, perform INT8 calibration and export a calibration cache (refer to Working With Mixed Precision).
3. Build and run make_plan on the host system to validate the trained model before deployment to the target system.
4. Copy the trained network (and INT8 calibration cache, if applicable) to the target system. Re-build and re-run the make_plan program on the target system to generate a plan file.
Note: The make_plan program must run on the target system in order for the TensorRT engine to be optimized correctly for that system. However, if an INT8 calibration cache was produced on the host, the cache can be re-used by the builder on the target when generating the engine (in other words, there is no need to do INT8 calibration on the target system itself).

After the plan file has been created on the embedded system, an embedded application can create an engine from the plan file and perform inferencing with the engine by using the TensorRT C++ API. For more information, refer to Performing Inference In C++.

To walk through a typical use case where a TensorRT engine is deployed on an embedded system, refer to:

## 13. Working With Deep Learning Frameworks

With the Python API, an existing model built with TensorFlow or an ONNX compatible framework can be used to build a NVIDIA® TensorRT™ engine using the provided parsers. The Python API also supports frameworks that store layer weights in a NumPy compatible format, for example, PyTorch.

### 13.1. Working With TensorFlow

TensorRT can work with TensorFlow in the following ways.
tf2onnx

This is the recommended method and involves using the tf2onnx converter first to convert the TensorFlow graph to ONNX and then using the ONNX parser to import the ONNX model into TensorRT. For details on tf2onnx, refer to thetf2onnx repository. For details on using the ONNX parser, refer to the Importing From ONNX Using Python or Importing An ONNX Model Using The C++ Parser API steps.

TF-TRT

This method accelerates a TensorFlow graph with TensorRT even if there are TensorFlow operators in the graph that are not supported by TensorRT (or TF-TRT). The subgraphs that are supported by TensorRT and TF-TRT are accelerated, and the resulting graph is still a TensorFlow graph that you can execute as usual. For step-by-step instructions on how to accelerate inference in TensorFlow with TensorRT (TF-TRT), refer to the TF-TRT User Guide. For TF-TRT examples, refer to Examples for TensorRT in TensorFlow (TF-TRT).

### 13.2. Working With PyTorch And Other Frameworks

PyTorch models can be exported to ONNX which can then be consumed by TensorRT.

If ONNX export is not possible, exporting to TensorRT is possible by replicating the network architecture using the TensorRT API and then copying the weights from PyTorch (or any other framework with NumPy compatible weights). For more information on using TensorRT with a PyTorch model, refer to the "Hello World" For TensorRT Using PyTorch And Python (network_api_pytorch_mnist) sample.

## 14. Working With DALI

DALI is a highly optimized open sourced library available on GitHub for data preprocessing. It uses an execution engine for a fast preprocessing pipeline. DALI accelerates blocks for image loading and augmentation and also provides GPU support for JPEG decoding and image manipulation.

NVIDIA® TensorRT™ can be integrated with NVIDIA® Data Loading Library™ (DALI), a collection of highly optimized building blocks and an execution engine to accelerate input data pre-processing for deep learning applications.

### 14.1. Benefits Of Integration

The benefits of integrating DALI with TensorRT include the following.
• Running DNN models requires input data pre-processing
• The computational complexity of the I/O pipeline has increased. Hence, the GPU starves for data. DALI helps to accelerate the preprocessing pipeline.
• DALI offsets the compute-intensive data pre-processing to GPU.
• Pre-processing involves decoding, resize, crop, spatial augmentation, format conversions (NCHW and NHWC)
• Multi-device DNN inference could be achieved via the same I/O pipeline
DALI supports:
• The feature to accelerate pre-processing on GPUs
• Configurable graphs and custom operators
• Multiple input formats (for example, JPEG, LMDB, RecordIO, TFRecord)
• Serializing a whole graph (portable graph)
• Easily integrates with framework plugins and open-source bindings

DALI supports a custom operator library that can be loaded at runtime. TensorRT inference can be configured as a custom operator to be a part of the DALI pipeline. A working example of TensorRT inference integrated as a part of DALI is open-sourced here.

For more information about integrating DALI with TensorRT on Xavier, refer to the GTC 2019 talk here.

## 15. Troubleshooting

The following sections help answer the most commonly asked questions regarding typical use cases with NVIDIA® TensorRT™.

### 15.1. FAQs

This section is to help troubleshoot the problem and answer our most asked questions.

### Q: How do I create an engine that is optimized for several different batch sizes?

A: While TensorRT allows an engine optimized for a given batch size to run at any smaller size, the performance for those smaller sizes can not be as well-optimized. To optimize for multiple different batch sizes, create optimization profiles at the dimensions that are assigned to OptProfilerSelector::kOPT.

### Q: Are engines and calibration tables portable across TensorRT versions?

A: No. Internal implementations and formats are continually optimized and can change between versions. For this reason, engines and calibration tables are not guaranteed to be binary compatible with different versions of TensorRT. Applications should build new engines and INT8 calibration tables when using a new version of TensorRT.

### Q: How do I choose the optimal workspace size?

A: Some TensorRT algorithms require additional workspace on the GPU. The method IBuilderConfig::setMaxWorkspaceSize() controls the maximum amount of workspace that can be allocated and prevents algorithms that require more workspace from being considered by the builder. At runtime, the space is allocated automatically when creating an IExecutionContext. The amount allocated is no more than is required, even if the amount set in IBuilderConfig::setMaxWorkspaceSize() is much higher. Applications should therefore allow the TensorRT builder as much workspace as they can afford; at runtime, TensorRT allocates no more than this and typically less.

### Q: How do I use TensorRT on multiple GPUs?

A: Each ICudaEngine object is bound to a specific GPU when it is instantiated, either by the builder or on deserialization. To select the GPU, use cudaSetDevice() before calling the builder or deserializing the engine. Each IExecutionContext is bound to the same GPU as the engine from which it was created. When calling execute() or enqueue(), ensure that the thread is associated with the correct device by calling cudaSetDevice() if necessary.

### Q: How do I get the version of TensorRT from the library file?

A: There is a symbol in the symbol table named tensorrt_version_#_#_#_# which contains the TensorRT version number. One possible way to read this symbol on Linux is to use the nm command like in the following example:
\$ nm -D libnvinfer.so.7 | grep tensorrt_version
000000002564741c B tensorrt_version_7_2_2_3


### Q: What can I do if my network is producing the wrong answer?

A: There are several reasons why your network can be generating incorrect answers. Here are some troubleshooting approaches which can help diagnose the problem:
• Turn on INFO level messages from the log stream and check what TensorRT is reporting.

• Check that your input preprocessing is generating exactly the input format required by the network.

• If you’re using reduced precision, run the network in FP32. If it produces the correct result, it is possible that lower precision has an insufficient dynamic range for the network.

• Try marking intermediate tensors in the network as outputs, and verify if they match what you are expecting.
Note: Marking tensors as outputs can inhibit optimizations, and therefore, can change the results.

### How do I determine how much device memory TensorRT needs to run my network?

A: TensorRT engines use device memory for three purposes: to hold the weights required by the network, to hold per context persistent state information, and to hold the intermediate activations required by IExecutionContext. The size of the weights can be closely approximated by the size of the serialized engine (in fact, this is a slight overestimate as the serialized engine also includes the network definition). The per context persistent state information is allocated using the GPU allocator during the creation of the execution context (even when createExecutionContextWithoutDeviceMemory() API is used). The size of persistent memory allocated is reported in the verbose logs generated during the creation of the execution context. The size of the activation memory required can be determined by calling ICudaEngine::getDeviceMemorySize(). The sum of these is the amount of device memory TensorRT allocates for the engine at runtime to run the network.
Note: The CUDA infrastructure and device code also consume device memory. The amount of memory varies by platform, device, and TensorRT version. Use cudaGetMemInfo to determine the total amount of device memory in use.

### Q: How much memory does the TensorRT builder use to build my network?

IBuilder can temporarily use more device memory than what the engine runtime requires.
• During a phase, it uses twice as much memory for the weights required by the engine. During that phase, no memory is allocated for activations.

• The auto-tuner times each layer for FP32 operation. Timing a layer in FP32 consumes twice as much device memory as an FP16 operation and four times as much for an INT8 operation, both for the weights and its input/output activations. The additional memory consumption for timing is theoretically noticeable if a single layer dominates the overall memory consumption of a network.

Note: The CUDA infrastructure and device code also consume device memory. The amount of memory varies by platform, device, and TensorRT version. Use cudaGetMemInfo to determine the total amount of device memory in use.

On systems with unified CPU/GPU memory, the IBuilder CPU memory consumption can further impact memory requirements. IBuilder can hold in CPU memory not only the original weights provided via the API but a copy of weights at a different precision or calculated from multiple weights from the original network.

### Q: If I build the engine on one GPU and run the engine on another GPU, does this work?

A: We recommend that you don’t; however if you do, you’ll need to follow these guidelines:
1. The major, minor, and patch versions of TensorRT must match between systems. This ensures you are picking kernels that are still present and have not undergone certain optimizations or bug fixes that would change their behavior.
2. The CUDA compute capability major and minor versions must match between systems. This ensures that the same hardware features are present so the kernel does not fail to execute. An example would be mixing cards with different precision capabilities.
3. The following properties should match between systems:
• Maximum GPU graphics clock speed
• Maximum GPU memory clock speed
• GPU memory bus width
• Total GPU memory
• GPU L2 cache size
• SM processor count
• Asynchronous engine count

If any of the previous properties do not match, you receive the following warning: Using an engine plan file across different models of devices is not recommended and is likely to affect performance or even cause errors.

If you still want to proceed, then you should build the engine on the smallest SKU in the family because autotuner choices made on smaller GPUs generalize better.

### Q: How do I implement batch normalization in TensorRT?

A: Batch normalization can be implemented using a sequence of IElementWiseLayer in TensorRT. More specifically:
adjustedScale = scale / sqrt(variance + epsilon)
batchNorm = (input + bias - (adjustedScale * mean)) * adjustedScale


### Q: Why does my network run slower when using DLA compared to without DLA?

A: DLA was designed to maximize energy efficiency. Depending on the features supported by DLA and the features supported by the GPU, either implementation can be more performant. Which implementation to use depends on your latency or throughput requirements and your power budget. Since all DLA engines are independent of the GPU and each other, you could also use both implementations at the same time to further increase the throughput of your network.

### Q: Which platforms and/or layers support INT8 quantization?

A: List of Layers supporting INT8 precision:
• IConcatenationLayer
• IDeconvolutionLayer
• IElementWiseLayer
• IFullyConnectedLayer
• IPoolingLayer
• IScaleLayer
For more information, refer to the Support Matrix.

### Q: Is INT4 quantization or INT16 quantization supported by TensorRT?

A: Neither INT4 nor INT16 quantization is supported by TensorRT at this time.

### Q: When will TensorRT support layer XYZ required by my network in the UFF parser?

A: UFF is deprecated. We recommend users switch their workflows to ONNX. The TensorRT ONNX parser is an open source project.

### Q: Can I use multiple TensorRT builders to compile on different targets?

A: TensorRT assumes that all resources for the device it is building on are available for optimization purposes. Concurrent use of multiple TensorRT builders (for example, multiple trtexec instances) to compile on different targets (DLA0, DLA1 and GPU) can oversubscribe system resources causing undefined behavior (meaning, inefficient plans, builder failure, or system instability).

It is recommended to use trtexec with the --saveEngine argument to compile for different targets (DLA and GPU) separately and save their plan files. Such plan files can then be reused for loading (using trtexec with the --loadEngine argument) and submitting multiple inference jobs on the respective targets (DLA0, DLA1, GPU). This two-step process alleviates over-subscription of system resources during the build phase while also allowing execution of the plan file to proceed without interference by the builder.

### Q: How can I safely reuse execution context device memory in TensorRT?

A: IExecutionContext requires device memory for both persistent and stateless purposes. Users can reuse the stateless portion of the context memory by using a combination of createExecutionContextWithoutDeviceMemory() and setDeviceMemory(). Any memory that the user provides to TensorRT using setDeviceMemory() API can be reused by the application after context execution. However, the persistent memory allocated by TensorRT during context creation cannot be reused between engine executions. If the user uses the createExecutionContext() API, there is no simple way to distinguish between persistent and stateless memory.

### 15.2. How Do I Report A Bug?

We appreciate all types of feedback. If you encounter any issues, please report them by following these steps.

### Procedure

1. Register for the NVIDIA Developer website.
2. Log in to the developer site.
3. Click on your name in the upper right corner.
4. Click My account > My Bugs and select Submit a New Bug.
5. Fill out the bug reporting page. Be descriptive and if possible, provide the steps that you are following to help reproduce the problem.
6. Click Submit a bug.

### 15.3. Understanding Error Messages

If an error is encountered during execution, TensorRT reports an error message that is intended to help in debugging the problem. Some common error messages that can be encountered by developers are discussed in the following sections.

### UFF Parser Error Messages

The following table captures the common UFF parser error messages.
Error Message Description
The input to the Scale Layer is required to have a minimum of 3 dimensions.
This error message can occur due to incorrect input dimensions. In UFF, input dimensions should always be specified with the implicit batch dimension not included in the specification.
Invalid scale mode, nbWeights: <X>
kernel weights has count <X> but <Y> was expected
<NODE> Axis node has op <OP>, expected Const. The axis must be specified as a Const node.
As indicated by the error message, the axis must be a build-time constant in order for UFF to parse the node correctly.

### ONNX Parser Error Messages

The parser can issue error messages if a constant input is used with a layer that does not support constant inputs. Consider using a tensor input instead.

### TensorRT Core Library Error Messages

The following table captures the common TensorRT core library error messages.
Error Message Description
Installation Errors
Cuda initialization failure with error <code>. Please check cuda installation:  http://docs.nvidia.com/cuda/cuda-installation-guide-linux/index.html.
This error message can occur if the CUDA or NVIDIA driver installation is corrupt. Refer to the URL for instructions on installing CUDA and the NVIDIA driver on your operating system.
Builder Errors
Internal error: could not find any implementation for node <name>. Try increasing the workspace size with IBuilderConfig::setMaxWorkspaceSize().
This error message occurs because there is no layer implementation for the given node in the network that can operate with the given workspace size. This usually occurs because the workspace size is insufficient but could also indicate a bug. If increasing the workspace size as suggested doesn’t help, report a bug (refer to How Do I Report A Bug?).
<layer-name>: (kernel|bias) weights has non-zero count but null values
<layer-name>: (kernel|bias) weights has zero count but non-null values
This error message occurs when there is a mismatch between the values and count fields in a Weights data structure passed to the builder. If the count is 0, then the values field should contain a null pointer; otherwise, the count must be non-zero, and values should contain a device pointer.
Builder was created on device different from current device.
This error message can show up if you:
1. Created an IBuilder targeting one GPU, then
2. Called cudaSetDevice() to target a different GPU, then
3. Attempted to use the IBuilder to create an engine.
Ensure you only use the IBuilder when targeting the GPU that was used to create the IBuilder.
You can encounter error messages indicating that the tensor dimensions do not match the semantics of the given layer. Carefully read the documentation on NvInfer.h on the usage of each layer and the expected dimensions of the tensor inputs and outputs to the layer.
INT8 Calibration Errors
Tensor <X> is uniformly zero.
This warning occurs and should be treated as an error when data distribution for a tensor is uniformly zero. In a network, the output tensor distribution can be uniformly zero under the following scenarios:
1. Constant tensor with all zero values; not an error.
2. Activation (ReLU) output with all negative inputs: not an error.
3. Data distribution is forced to all zero due to computation error in the previous layer; emit a warning here.2
4. User does not provide any calibration images; emit a warning here.1
Could not find scales for tensor <X>.
This error message indicates that a calibration failure occurred with no scaling factors detected. This could be due to no INT8 calibrator or insufficient custom scales for network layers. For more information, refer to the Performing Inference In INT8 Using Custom Calibration (sampleINT8) located in the /opensource/sampleINT8 directory in the GitHub repository to set up calibration correctly.
Engine Compatibility Errors
The engine plan file is not compatible with this version of TensorRT, expecting (format|library) version <X> got <Y>, please rebuild.
This error message can occur if you are running TensorRT using an engine PLAN file that is incompatible with the current version of TensorRT. Ensure you use the same version of TensorRT when generating the engine and running it.
The engine plan file is generated on an incompatible device, expecting compute <X> got compute <Y>, please rebuild.
This error message can occur if you build an engine on a device of a different compute capability than the device that is used to run the engine.
Using an engine plan file across different models of devices is not recommended and is likely to affect performance or even cause errors.

This warning message can occur if you build an engine on a device with the same compute capability but is not identical to the device that is used to run the engine.

As indicated by the warning, it is highly recommended to use a device of the same model when generating the engine and deploying it to avoid compatibility issues.

Out Of Memory Errors
GPU memory allocation failed during initialization of (tensor|layer): <name>
GPU memory
These error messages can occur if there is insufficient GPU memory available to instantiate a given TensorRT engine. Verify that the GPU has sufficient available memory to contain the required layer weights and activation tensors.
Allocation failed during deserialization of weights.
GPU does not meet the minimum memory requirements to run this engine …
FP16 Errors
Network needs native FP16 and platform does not have native FP16
This error message can occur if you attempt to deserialize an engine that uses FP16 arithmetic on a GPU that does not support FP16 arithmetic. You either need to rebuild the engine without FP16 precision inference or upgrade your GPU to a model that supports FP16 precision inference.
Plugin Errors
Custom layer <name> returned non-zero initialization
This error message can occur if the initialize() method of a given plugin layer returns a non-zero value. Refer to the implementation of that layer to debug this error further. For more information, refer to TensorRT Layers.

### 15.4. Support

Support, resources, and information about TensorRT can be found online at https://developer.nvidia.com/tensorrt. This includes blogs, samples, and more.

In addition, you can access the NVIDIA DevTalk TensorRT forum at https://devtalk.nvidia.com/default/board/304/tensorrt/ for all things related to TensorRT. This forum offers the possibility of finding answers, making connections, and getting involved in discussions with customers, developers, and TensorRT engineers.

## A. Appendix

### A.1. TensorRT Layers

In TensorRT, layers represent distinct flavors of mathematical and/or programmatic operations. The following sections describe every layer that TensorRT supports. The minimum workspace required by TensorRT depends on the operators used by the network. A suggested minimum build-time setting is 16 MB. Regardless of the maximum workspace value provided to the builder, TensorRT will allocate at runtime no more than the workspace it requires. To view a list of the specific attributes supported by each layer, refer to the TensorRT API documentation.

TensorRT can optimize performance by fusing layers. For information about how to enable layer fusion optimizations, refer to Types Of Fusions. For information about optimizing individual layer performance, refer to How Do I Optimize My Layer Performance?.

For details about the types of precision and features supported per layer, refer to the TensorRT Support Matrix.

### A.1.1. IActivationLayer

The IActivationLayer implements element-wise activation functions.

#### Layer Description

Apply an activation function on an input tensor A, and produce an output tensor B with the same dimensions.

The Activation layer supports the following operations:
rectified Linear Unit (ReLU): B = ReLU(A)
Hyperbolic tangent: B = tanh(A)
“s” shaped curve (sigmoid): B = σ(A)


#### Conditions And Limitations

None

Refer to the C++ class IActivationLayer or the Python class IActivationLayer for further details.

### A.1.2. IConcatenationLayer

The IConcatenationLayer links together multiple tensors of the same non-channel sizes along the channel dimension.

#### Layer Description

The concatenation layer is passed in an array of m input tensors Ai and a channel axis c.

All dimensions of all input tensors must match in every axis except axis c. Let each input tensor have dimensions ai. The concatenated output tensor will have dimensions b such that .

#### Conditions And Limitations

The default channel axis is assumed to be the third from the last axis or the first non-batch axis if there are fewer than three non-batch axes. Concatenation cannot be done along the batch axis. All input tensors must be non-INT32 type, or all must be INT32 type.

Refer to the C++ class IConcatenationLayer or the Python class IConcatenationLayer for further details.

### A.1.3. IConstantLayer

The IConstantLayer outputs a tensor with values provided as parameters to this layer, enabling the convenient use of constants in computations.

#### Layer Description

Given dimensions d and weight vector w, the constant layer will output a tensor B of dimensions d with the constant values in w. This layer takes no input tensor. The number of elements in the weight vector w is equal to the volume of d.

#### Conditions And Limitations

The output can be a tensor of zero to seven dimensions. Boolean weights are not supported.

Refer to the C++ class IConstantLayer or the Python class IConstantLayer for further details.

### A.1.4. IConvolutionLayer

The IConvolutionLayer computes a 2D (channel, height, and width) convolution or 3D (channel, depth, height, and width) convolution, with or without bias.
Note: The operation that the IConvolutionLayer performs is actually a correlation. Therefore, it is a consideration if you are formatting weights to import via an API rather than via the NvCaffeParser library.

#### Layer Description: 2D convolution

Compute a cross-correlation with 2D filters on a 4D tensor A, of dimensions a, to produce a 4D tensor B, of dimensions b. The dimensions of B depend on the dimensions of A, the number of output maps m, kernel size k, symmetric padding p, stride s, dilation d, and dilated kernel size , such that height and width are adjusted accordingly as follows:
The kernel weights w and bias weights x (optional) for the number of groups g are such that:
• w is ordered according to shape
• x has length m
Let tensor K with dimensions be defined as the zero-filled tensor, such that:

and tensor C the zero-padded copy of A with dimensions , then tensor B is defined as where and .

#### Layer Description: 3D convolution

Compute a cross-correlation with 3D filters on a 5D tensor A, of dimensions a, to produce a 5D tensor B, of dimensions b. The dimensions of B depend on the dimensions of A, the number of output maps m, kernel size k, symmetric padding p, stride s, dilation d, and dilated kernel size , such that height and width are adjusted accordingly as follows:
The kernel weights w and bias weights x (optional) for the number of groups g, are such that:
• w is ordered according to shape
• x has length m
Let tensor K with dimensions be defined as the zero-filled tensor, such that:

and tensor C the zero-padded copy of A with dimensions , then tensor B is defined as where , , and .

#### Conditions And Limitations

The number of input kernel dimensions determine 2D or 3D. For 2D convolution, input and output may have more than four dimensions; beyond four, all dimensions are treated as multipliers on the batch size, and input and output are treated as 4D tensors. For 3D convolution, similar to 2D convolution, if input or output has more than 5 dimensions, all dimensions beyond five are treated as multipliers on the batch size. If groups are specified and INT8 data type is used, then the size of the groups must be a multiple of four for both input and output.

Refer to the C++ class IConvolutionLayer or the Python class IConvolutionLayer for further details.

### A.1.5. IDeconvolutionLayer

The IDeconvolutionLayer computes a 2D (channel, height, and width) or 3D (channel, depth, height and width) deconvolution, with or without bias.
Note: This layer actually applies a 2D/3D transposed convolution operator over a 2D/3D input. It is also known as fractionally-strided convolution or transposed convolution.

#### Layer Description: 2D deconvolution

Compute a cross-correlation with 2D filters on a 4D tensor A, of dimensions a, to produce a 4D tensor B, of dimensions b. The dimensions of B depend on the dimensions of A, the number of output maps m, kernel size k, symmetric padding p, stride s, dilation d, and dilated kernel size , such that height and width are adjusted accordingly as follows:
The kernel weights w and bias weights x (optional) for the number of groups g, are such that:
• w is ordered according to shape
• x has length m
Let tensor K with dimensions be defined as the zero-filled tensor, such that:

and tensor C the zero-padded copy of A with dimensions , then tensor B is defined as where u ranges from 0 to , and v ranges from 0 to .

#### Layer Description: 3D deconvolution

Compute a cross-correlation with 3D filters on a 5D tensor A, of dimensions a, to produce a 5D tensor B, of dimensions b. The dimensions of B depend on the dimensions of A, the number of output maps m, kernel size k, symmetric padding p, stride s, dilation d, and dilated kernel size , such that height and width are adjusted accordingly as follows:
The kernel weights w and bias weights x (optional) for the number of groups g, are such that:
• w is ordered according to shape
• x has length m
Let tensor K with dimensions be defined as the zero-filled tensor, such that:

and tensor C the zero-padded copy of A with dimensions , then tensor B is defined as where u ranges from 0 to , and v ranges from 0 to , and w ranges from 0 to .

#### Conditions And Limitations

2D or 3D is determined by the number of input kernel dimensions. For 2D deconvolution, input and output may have more than 4 dimensions; beyond 4, all dimensions are treated as multipliers on the batch size, and input and output are treated as 4D tensors. For 3D deconvolution, similar to 2D deconvolution, dimensions beyond 5 are treated as multipliers on the batch size. If groups are specified and INT8 data type is used, then the size of the groups must be a multiple of 4 for both input and output.

Refer to the C++ class IDeconvolutionLayer or the Python class IDeconvolutionLayer for further details.

### A.1.6. IDequantizeLayer

The IDequantizeLayer implements dequantization operators.

#### Layer Description

The IDequantizeLayer layer accepts a signed 8-bit integer input tensor, and uses the configured scale and zero-point inputs to dequantize the input according to:
output = (input - zeroPt) * scale

The first input (index 0) is the tensor to be quantized. The second input (index 1), and third input (index 2), are the scale and zero-point respectively.

Refer to the C++ class IDequantizeLayer or the Python class IDequantizeLayer for further details.

### A.1.7. IElementWiseLayer

The IElementWiseLayer, also known as the Eltwise layer, implements per-element operations.

#### Layer Description

This layer computes a per-element binary operation between input tensor A and input tensor B to produce an output tensor C. For each dimension, their lengths must match, or one of them must be one. In the latter case, the tensor is broadcast along that axis. The output tensor has the same number of dimensions as the inputs. The output tensor has the same number of dimensions as the inputs. For each output dimension, its length is equal to the lengths of the corresponding input dimensions if they match; otherwise, it is equal to the corresponding input dimension that is not one.

The IElementWiseLayer supports the following operations:
Sum: C = A+B
Product: C = A*B
Minimum: C = min(A, B)
Maximum: C = max(A, B)
Subtraction: C = A-B
Division: C = A/B
Power: C = A^B
Floor division : C = floor(A/B)
And : C = A & B
Or : C = A | B
Xor : C = A xor B
Equal : C = (A == B)
Greater : C = A > B
Less: C = A < B


#### Conditions And Limitations

The length of each dimension of the two input tensors A and B must be equal or equal to one.

Refer to the C++ class IElementWiseLayer or the Python class IElementWiseLayer for further details.

### A.1.7.1. ElementWise Layer Setup

The ElementWise layer is used to execute the second step of the functionality provided by a FullyConnected layer. The output of the fcbias Constant layer and Matrix Multiplication layer are used as inputs to the ElementWise layer. The output from this layer is then supplied to the TopK layer.
The code below demonstrates how to setup the layer:
C++ code snippet
auto fcbias = network->addConstant(Dims2(VOCAB_SIZE, 1), weightMap[FCB_NAME]);
*matrixMultLayer->getOutput(0),
*fcbias->getOutput(0), ElementWiseOperation::kSUM);

Python code snippet
fc_bias = network.add_constant((VOCAB_SIZE, 1), weightMap[FCB_NAME])
matrix_mult_layer.get_output(0),
fc_bias.get_output(0), trt.ElementWiseOperation.SUM)
assert add_bias_layer != None


For more information, refer to the TensorRT API documentation.

### A.1.8. IFillLayer

The IFillLayer is used to generate an output tensor with the specified mode.

#### Layer Description

Given an output tensor size, the layer will generate data with the specified mode and fill the tensor. The alpha and beta perform as different parameters for different modes.

The IFillLayer supports the following operations:
• LINSPACE: Output = alpha(scalar) + beta(different on each axis) * element_index
• RANDOM_UNIFORM: Output = Random(min = alpha, max = beta)

#### Conditions And Limitations

The layer can only generate a 1D tensor if using static tensor size. When using the dynamic tensor size, the dimensions for alpha and beta should match each mode’s requirement.

Refer to the C++ class IFillLayer or the Python class IFillLayer for further details.

### A.1.9. IFullyConnectedLayer

The IFullyConnectedLayer implements a matrix-vector product, with or without bias.

#### Layer Description

The IFullyConnectedLayer expects an input tensor A of three or more dimensions. Given an input tensor A of dimensions , it is first reshaped into a tensor A’ of dimensions by squeezing the last three dimensions into one dimension.

Then, the layer performs the operation ${\mathbf{B}}^{\text{'}}={\mathbf{WA}}^{\text{'}}+\mathbf{X}$ where W is the weight tensor of dimensions , X is the bias tensor of dimensions $\mathbf{x}=\left(k\right)$ broadcasted along the other dimensions, and k is the number of output channels, configured via setNbOutputChannels(). If X is not specified, the value of the bias is implicitly 0. The resulting B’ is a tensor of dimensions .

Finally, B’ is reshaped again into the output tensor B of dimensions by inserting two lower dimensions each of size 1.

In summary, for input tensor A of dimensions , the output tensor B will have dimensions .

#### Conditions And Limitations

A must have three dimensions or more.

Refer to the C++ class IFullyConnectedLayer or the Python class IFullyConnectedLayer for further details.

### A.1.10. IGatherLayer

The IGatherLayer implements the gather operation on a given axis.

#### Layer Description

The IGatherLayer gathers elements of each data tensor A along the specified axisxusing indices tensor B of zero dimensions or more dimensions to produce output tensor C of dimensions c.

If B has zero dimensions and it is a scalar b, then and c has a length equal to one less than the length of a. In this case, where .

If B is a tensor of dimensions b (with length b), then . In this case, where and .

#### Conditions And Limitations

• The indices tensor B must contain only INT32 values.
• If there are any invalid indices elements in the indices tensor, then zeros will be stored at the appropriate locations in the output tensor.
Applicable to implicit batch mode:
• Elements cannot be gathered along the batch size dimension.
• The data tensor A must contain at least one non-batch dimension.
• The data tensor A must contain at least axis + 1 non-batch dimensions.
• The parameter axis is zero-indexed and starts at the first non-batch dimension of data tensor A.
Applicable to explicit batch mode:
• The data tensor A must contain at least one dimension.
• The data tensor A must contain at least axis + 1 dimensions.
• The parameter axis is zero-indexed and starts at the first dimension of data tensor A.
• axis must be larger than or equal to the number of element-wise dimensions set by IGatherLayer::setNbElementWiseDimensions().
• The number of ElementWise dimensions can only be set to 0 or 1.
• If the number of ElementWise dimensions is set to 1, the behavior will be similar to implicit batch mode. The leading dimension will be treated like batch dimension in implicit batch mode, which is not part of the gather operation. For example, data tensor A has dimensions of [N, C, H, W], and indices tensor B has the dimensions of [N, K]. If nbElementWiseDimensions is 1 and the axis is set to 1, the dimensions of the result will be [N, K, H, W]. If nbElementWiseDimensions is 0 and the axis is set to 1, the dimensions of the result will be [N, N, K, H, W].
• ElementWise dimensions support broadcasts like IElementWiseLayer.

Refer to the C++ class IGatherLayer or the Python class IGatherLayer for further details.

### A.1.11. IIdentityLayer

The IIdentityLayer implements the identity operation.

#### Layer Description

The output of the layer is mathematically identical to the input. This layer allows you to precisely control the precision of tensors and transform from one precision to another. If the input is at a different precision than the output, the layer will convert the input tensor into the output precision.

#### Conditions And Limitations

None

Refer to the C++ class IIdentityLayer or the Python class IIdentityLayer for further details.

### A.1.12. IIteratorLayer

The IIteratorLayer enables a loop to iterate over a tensor. A loop is defined by loop boundary layers.

For more information about the IIteratorLayer, including how loops work and their limitations, refer to Working With Loops.

Refer to the C++ class IIteratorLayer or the Python class IIteratorLayer for further details.

### A.1.13. ILoopBoundaryLayer

Class ILoopBoundaryLayer, derived from class ILayer, is the base class for the loop-related layers, specifically ITripLimitLayer, ILoopIteratorLayer, IRecurrenceLayer, and ILoopOutputLayer. Class ILoopBoundaryLayer defines a virtual method getLoop() that returns a pointer to the associated ILoop.

For more information about the ILoopBoundaryLayer, including how loops work and their limitations, refer to Working With Loops.

Refer to the C++ class ILoopBoundaryLayer or the Python class ILoopBoundaryLayer for further details.

### A.1.14. ILoopOutputLayer

The ILoopOutputLayer specifies an output from the loop. A loop is defined by loop boundary layers.

For more information about the ILoopOutputLayer, including how loops work and their limitations, refer to Working With Loops.

Refer to the C++ class ILoopOutputLayer or the Python class ILoopOutputLayer for further details.

### A.1.15. ILRNLayer

The ILRNLayer implements cross-channel Local Response Normalization (LRN).

#### Layer Description

Given an input A, the LRN layer performs a cross-channel LRN to produce output Bof the same dimensions. The operation of this layer depends on four constant values: w is the size of the cross-channel window over which the normalization will occur, α, β, and k are normalization parameters. This formula shows the operation performed by the layer: ${\mathbf{B}}_{I}=\frac{{A}_{I}}{\left({k+{\mathrm{aA}}_{j\left(I\right)}}^{2}\right)\beta }$

Where I represents the indexes of tensor elements, and $j\left(I\right)$ the indices where the channel dimension is replaced by j. For channel index c of C channels, index j ranges from and .

#### Conditions And Limitations

A must have three or more dimensions. The following list shows the possible values for the parameters:

Refer to the C++ class ILRNLayer or the Python class ILRNLayer for further details.

### A.1.16. IMatrixMultiplyLayer

The IMatrixMultiplyLayer implements matrix multiplication for a collection of matrices.

#### Layer Description

The IMatrixMultiplyLayer computes the matrix multiplication of input tensors A, of dimensions a, and B, of dimensions b, and produces output tensor C, of dimensions c. A, B, and C all have the same rank $n\ge 2$ . If $n>2$ , then A, B, and C are treated as collections of matrices; A and B may be optionally transposed (the transpose is applied to the last two dimensions). Let ${\mathbf{A}}^{I}$ and ${\mathbf{B}}^{I}$ be the input tensors after the optional transpose, then .

Given the corresponding dimensions aI and bI of AI and BI, then ; that is, the resulting collection has the same number of matrices as the input collections, and the rows and columns correspond to the rows in ${\mathbf{A}}^{I}$ and the columns in ${\mathbf{B}}^{I}$ . Notice also the use of max in lengths, for the case of broadcast on a dimension.

#### Conditions And Limitations

Tensors A and B must have at least two dimensions and agree on the number of dimensions. The length of each dimension must be the same, assuming that dimensions of length one are broadcast to match the corresponding length.

Refer to the C++ class IMatrixMultiplyLayer or the Python class IMatrixMultiplyLayer for further details.

### A.1.16.1. MatrixMultiply Layer Setup

The Matrix Multiplication layer is used to execute the first step of the functionality provided by a FullyConnected layer. As shown in the code below, a Constant layer will need to be used so that the FullyConnected weights can be stored in the engine. The output of the Constant and RNN layers are then used as inputs to the Matrix Multiplication layer. The RNN output is transposed so that the dimensions for the MatrixMultiply are valid.
C++ code snippet
weightMap["trt_fcw"] = transposeFCWeights(weightMap[FCW_NAME]);
auto fcwts = network->addConstant(Dims2(VOCAB_SIZE, HIDDEN_SIZE), weightMap["trt_fcw"]);
auto matrixMultLayer = network->addMatrixMultiply(
*fcwts->getOutput(0), false, *rnn->getOutput(0), true);
assert(matrixMultLayer != nullptr);
matrixMultLayer->getOutput(0)->setName("Matrix Multiplication output");

Python code snippet
weight_map["trt_fcw"] = transpose_fc_weights(weight_map[FCW_NAME])
fc_wts = network.add_constant((VOCAB_SIZE, HIDDEN_SIZE), weight_map["trt_fcw"])
fc_wts.get_output(0), trt.MatrixOperation.NONE,  rnn.get_output(0), trt.MatrixOperation.TRANSPOSE)
assert matrix_mult_layer != None
matrix_mult_layer.get_output(0).name =
"Matrix Multiplication output"


For more information, refer to the TensorRT API documentation.

### A.1.17. IParametricReluLayer

The IParametricReluLayer represents a parametric ReLU operation, meaning a leaky ReLU where the slopes for x < 0 can be different for each element.

#### Layer Description

Users provide a data tensor X and a slopes tensor S. At each element, the layer computes y = x if x ≥ 0 and y = x∙s if x < 0. The slopes tensor may be broadcast to the size of the data tensor and vice versa.

#### Conditions And Limitations

Parametric ReLU is not supported in many fusions; therefore, the performance may be worse than with standard ReLU.

Refer to the C++ class IParametricReluLayer or the Python class IParametricReluLayer for further details.

The IPaddingLayer implements spatial zero-padding of tensors along the two innermost dimensions.

#### Layer Description

The IPaddingLayer pads zeros to (or trims edges from) an input tensor A along each of the two innermost dimensions and gives the output tensor B. Padding can be different on each dimension, asymmetric, and can be either positive (resulting in expansion of the tensor) or negative (resulting in trimming). Padding at the beginning and end of the two dimensions is specified by 2D vectors x and y for pre and post padding respectively.

For input tensor A of n dimensions a, the output B will have n dimensions b such that . Accordingly, the values of Bw are zeros if . Otherwise, ${\mathbf{B}}_{w}={\mathbf{A}}_{z}$ where and ${\mathbf{z}}_{i}={\mathbf{w}}_{i}$ for all other dimensions i.

#### Conditions And Limitations

• A must have three dimensions or more.
• The padding can only be applied along the two innermost dimensions.
• Only zero-padding is supported.

Refer to the C++ class IPaddingLayer or the Python class IPaddingLayer for further details.

### A.1.19. IPluginV2Layer

The IPluginV2Layer provides the ability to extend the functionalities of TensorRT by using custom implementations for unsupported layers.

#### Layer Description

The IPluginV2Layer is used to set up and configure the plugin. Refer to the IPluginV2 API Description for more details on the API. TensorRT also has support for a Plugin Registry, which is a single registration point for all plugins in the network. In order to register plugins with the registry, implement the IPluginV2 class and the IPluginCreator class for your plugin.

#### Conditions And Limitations

None

Refer to the C++ class IPluginV2Layer or the Python class IPluginV2Layer for further details.

### A.1.20. IPoolingLayer

The IPoolingLayer implements pooling within a channel. Supported pooling types are maximum, average, and maximum-average blend.

#### Layer Description: 2D pooling

Compute a pooling with 2D filters on a tensor A, of dimensions a, to produce a tensor B, of dimensions b. The dimensions of B depend on the dimensions of A, window size r, symmetric padding p and stride s such that:

Let tensor C be the zero-padded copy of A with dimensions where and .

Where func is defined by one of the pooling types t:
PoolingType::kMAX
Maximum over elements in window.
PoolingType::kAVERAGE
Average over elements in the window.
PoolingType::kMAX_AVERAGE_BLEND
Hybrid of maximum and average pooling. The results of the maximum pooling and the average pooling are combined with the blending factor as (1-blendFactor)*maximumPoolingResult + blendFactor*averagePoolingResult to yield the result. The blendFactor can be set to a value between 0 and 1.

By default, average pooling is performed on the overlap between the pooling window and the padded input. If the exclusive parameter is set to true, the average pooling is performed on the overlap area between the pooling window and unpadded input.

#### Layer Description: 3D pooling

Compute a pooling with 3D filters on a tensor A, of dimensions a, to produce a tensor B, of dimensions b. The dimensions of B depend on the dimensions of A, window size r, symmetric padding p and stride s such that:

Let tensor C be the zero-padded copy of A with dimensions where , , and .

Where func is defined by one of the pooling types t:
PoolingType::kMAX
Maximum over elements in window.
PoolingType::kAVERAGE
Average over elements in the window.
PoolingType::kMAX_AVERAGE_BLEND
Hybrid of maximum and average pooling. The results of the maximum pooling and the average pooling are combined with the blending factor as (1-blendFactor)*maximumPoolingResult + blendFactor*averagePoolingResult to yield the result. The blendFactor can be set to a value between 0 and 1.

By default, average pooling is performed on the overlap between the pooling window and the padded input. If the exclusive parameter is set to true, the average pooling is performed on the overlap area between the pooling window and unpadded input.

#### Conditions And Limitations

The number of input kernel dimensions determine 2D or 3D. For 2D pooling, input and output tensors should have three or more dimensions. For 3D pooling, input and output tensors should have four or more dimensions.

Refer to the C++ class IPoolingLayer or the Python class IPoolingLayer for further details.

### A.1.21. IQuantizeLayer

This IQuantizeLayer layer implements quantization operators.

#### Layer Description

The IQuantizeLayer layer accepts a floating-point data input tensor and uses the scale and zero-point inputs to quantize the data to an 8-bit signed integer according to:
output = clamp(round(input / scale) +  zeroPt)

Rounding type is rounding-to-nearest ties-to-even. Clamping is in the range [-128, 127]. The first input (index 0) is the tensor to be quantized. The second (index 1) and third (index 2) are the scale and zero-point respectively.

Refer to the C++ class IQuantizeLayer or the Python class IQuantizeLayer for further details.

### A.1.22. IRaggedSoftMaxLayer

The IRaggedSoftMaxLayer applies the SoftMax function on an input tensor of sequences across the sequence lengths specified by the user.

#### Layer Description

This layer has two inputs: a 2D input tensor A of shape zs containing z sequences of data and a 1D bounds tensor B of shape z containing the lengths of each of the z sequences in A. The resulting output tensor C has the same dimensions as the input tensor A.

The SoftMax function S is defined on every i of the z sequences of data values ${A}_{i,0:\mathrm{Bi}}$ like in the SoftMax layer.

#### Conditions And Limitations

None

Refer to the C++ class IRaggedSoftMaxLayer or the Python class IRaggedSoftMaxLayer for further details.

### A.1.23. IRecurrenceLayer

The IRecurrenceLayer specifies a recurrent definition. A loop is defined by loop boundary layers.

For more information about the IRecurrenceLayer, including how loops work and their limitations, refer to Working With Loops.

Refer to the C++ class IRecurrenceLayer or the Python class IRecurrenceLayer for further details.

### A.1.24. IReduceLayer

The IReduceLayer implements dimension reduction of tensors using reduce operators.

#### Layer Description

The IReduceLayer computes a reduction of input tensor A, of dimensions a, to produce an output tensor B, of dimensions b, over the set of reduction dimensions r. The reduction operator op is one of max, min, product, sum, and average. The reduction can preserve the number of dimensions of A or not. If the dimensions are kept, then ; if the dimensions are not kept, then ${\mathbf{b}}_{j-m\left(j\right)}={\mathbf{a}}_{j}$ where $jϵ\mathbf{r}$ and $m\left(j\right)$ is the number of reduction indexes in r less than or equal to j.

With the sequence of indexes i, ${\mathbf{B}}_{i}=\mathrm{op}\left({\mathbf{A}}_{j}\right)$ , where the sequence of indexes j is such that .

#### Conditions And Limitations

The input must have at least one non-batch dimension. The batch size dimension cannot be reduced.

Refer to the C++ class IReduceLayer or the Python class IReduceLayer for further details.

### A.1.25. IResizeLayer

The IResizeLayer implements the resize operation on an input tensor.

#### Layer Description

The IResizeLayer resizes input tensor A, of dimension a, to produce an output tensor B, of dimension b, using a given resize mode m. Output dimension b can either be provided directly or can be computed using resize scales s. If resize scales s are provided, .

Interpolation modes such as Nearest and Linear are supported for the resize operation. The nearest mode resizes innermost d dimensions of N-D tensors, where and N > 0. The linear mode resizes innermost d dimensions of N-D tensors, where and N > 0.

The coordinate transformation mapping function, while interpolating, can be configured to align corners, asymmetric and half pixel. When resized to a single pixel, we support using either the coordinate transformation or using the upper left pixel. When resize mode is Nearest, we support different rounding modes like half down, half up, round to floor, and round to ceiling.

#### Conditions And Limitations

Either output dimension b or resize scales s must be known and valid. Number of scales must be equal to the number of input dimensions. Number of output dimensions must be equal to the number of input dimensions.

Refer to the C++ class IResizeLayer or the Python class IResizeLayer for further details.

### A.1.26. IRNNv2Layer

The IRNNv2Layer implements recurrent layers such as Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), Gated Recurrent Units (GRU), and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). Supported types are RNN, GRU, and LSTM. It performs a recurrent operation, where the operation is defined by one of several well-known recurrent neural network (RNN) "cells."
Note: The IRNNv2Layer is deprecated in favor of the loop API; however, it is still available for backward compatibility. For more information about the loop API, refer to the sampleCharRNN sample with the --Iloop option.

#### Layer Description

This layer accepts an input sequence X, initial hidden state H0, and if the cell is a long short-term memory (LSTM) cell, initial cell state C0, and produces an output Y which represents the output of the final RNN "sub-layer" computed across T timesteps (refer below). Optionally, the layer can also produce an output