BMC Management

1.0

NVIDIA BMC is based on the OpenBMC open-software framework which builds a complete Linux image for a board management controller (BMC). It uses the Yocto project as the underlying building and distro generation framework.

The primary software components of BMC are the following:

  • U-boot bootloader

  • Linux kernel

  • OpenBMC distro

There is a software version for each of the BMC software components. You may retrieve this information by running the following for each component:

  • U-boot version – version command from the u-boot prompt

  • Linux version – uname -a command from the Linux prompt

  • OpenBMC version – cat /etc/os-release from the Linux prompt

  1. BMC starts booting through u-boot bootloader once the power supply is powered on.

  2. By default, the BMC automatically boots into Linux. To stop at the u-boot prompt, users must type the password 0penBmc (note the use of the digit zero in 0pen) within 5 seconds. To boot Linux from the u-boot prompt, type boot.

  3. The BMC provides indications of its status during its operation:

    Scenario

    Message

    At the beginning of the boot process of the u-boot

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    Nvidia Bluefield BMC U-BOOT starting

    At the beginning of the OS boot process

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    Nvidia Bluefield BMC Starting kernel ...

    At the login prompt

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    Nvidia Bluefield BMC OS is up and running

    Upon reboot or shutdown

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    Nvidia Bluefield BMC is shutting down

  4. The default password for the root user, to be typed in once Linux is booted, is 0penBmc.

    Note

    For information on password policy, refer to section "BMC Management Interface".

The NVIDIA® BlueField® platform BMC uses Flattened Image Tree (FIT) format for its Linux kernel.

The output from u-boot's imls command shows the configurations within the FIT image. By default, u-boot has bootcmd_string=bootm 0x20070000 configured and there is no configuration ID used to boot configuration 1 or 2 of the FIT image. So, by default, the BlueField platform BMC boots using BlueField 1U Reference Platform DTB file.

To boot the BMC using the BlueField 2U Reference Platform DTB, do one of two things from the u-boot command line:

  • For a one-time boot of the platform, run:

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    bootm 0x20070000#conf@aspeed-bmc-mlx-bluewhale2u.dtb

  • For persistent boot of the 2U reference platform, modify the environmental variable bootcmd_string:

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    setenv bootcmd_string bootm 0x20070000#conf@aspeed-bmc-mlx-bluewhale2u.dtb saveenv boot

The supported user management commands are listed in the following table.

No.

Function

Command

1

List the users

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ipmitool user list [<channel-number>]

For example:

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ipmitool user list 1

2

User creation

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ipmitool user set name <user-id> <username>

For example:

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ipmitool user set name 2 AdminPass_123!

3

Set user password

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ipmitool user set password <user-id> <password>

For example:

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ipmitool user set password 2 AdminPass_123!

4

Enable user

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ipmitool user enable <user-id>

For example:

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ipmitool user enable 2

5

Disable user

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ipmitool user disable <user-id>

For example:

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ipmitool user disable 2

6

Set user privilege

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ipmitool user priv <user-id> <privilege level(1-4)> [<channel-number>]

Where "privilege level":

  • 1 – callback level (currently not supported)

  • 2 – user level

  • 3 – operator level

  • 4 – administrator level

For example:

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ipmitool user priv 2 0x3 1

7

Enable remote IPMI command functionality for user

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ipmitool channel setaccess [<channel-number>] <user id> ipmi = on| off

For example:

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ipmitool channel setaccess 1 2 ipmi=on

8

Lanplus commands to execute IPMI commands remotely for users with admin permissions

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ipmitool -C 17 -I lanplus -U <user> -P <password> -H <bmc-ip-address> <ipmi-command>

For example:

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ipmitool -C 17 -I lanplus -U ADMIN -P AdminPass_123! -H 10.10.10.10 user list 1

9

Lanplus commands to execute IPMI commands remotely for users with other than administrator roles

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ipmitool -C 17 -I lanplus -U <user> -P <password> -H <bmc-ip-address> -L <privilege (operator|user)> <ipmi-command>

For example:

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ipmitool -C 17 -I lanplus -U operator1 -P operator123 -H 10.10.10.10 -L operator user list 1 ipmitool -C 17 -I lanplus -U user1 -P user123 -H 10.10.10.10 -L user chassis status

10

Delete user

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ipmitool user set name <user-id> ""

For example:

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ipmitool user set name 2 ""

Warning

To obtain the BMC's MAC address, refer to the DPU's board label.

BMC management network interface can be configured using IPMI. By default, BMC comes up with the DHCP network configuration.

Network configuration functions:

  • Setting DHCP/Static network mode configuration

  • Adding/setting IPv4/IPv6 configuration including IP address, gateway, netmask

  • Adding DNS servers

  • Adding NTP server

  • Setting BMC time with NTP server or system RTC

The following table lists the available network IPMI commands:

No.

Function

Command

Description

1

Change mode to Static

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ipmitool lan set 1 ipsrc <mode>

For example:

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ipmitool lan set 1 ipsrc static

Sets LAN channel 1 IP config mode to static which corresponds to network interface "eth0"

2

Change mode to DHCP

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ipmitool lan set 1 ipsrc <mode>

For example:

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ipmitool lan set 1 ipsrc dhcp

Sets LAN channel 1 IP config mode to DHCP which corresponds to the network interface "eth0"

3

Add IPv4 address

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ipmitool lan set 1 ipaddr <ip-address>

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ipmitool lan set 1 defgw ipaddr <ip-address>

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ipmitool lan set 1 netmask <netmask>

Adds IPv4 address, default gateway, and netmask to the network interface "eth0"

4

Get IPv4 config

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ipmitool lan print 1

Gets IPv4 network config for channel 1 which corresponds to the network interface "eth0"

5

Set IPv6 address

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ipmitool lan6 set 1 nolock static_addr 0 enable <ipv6-address> 64

Adds IPv6 address to the network interface "eth0"

6

Get IPv6 config

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ipmitool lan6 print 1

Gets IPv6 network config for channel 1 which corresponds to the network interface "eth0"

7

Get DNS server

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ipmitool raw 0x32 0x6B

Output:

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0b 31 30 2e 31 35 2e 31 32 2e 36 37

Corresponds to: 10.15.12.67

Gets the DNS server

8

Add DNS server

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ipmitool raw 0x32 0x6C 0x0b 0x31 0x30 0x2e 0x31 0x35 0x2e 0x31 0x32 0x2e 0x36 0x37

Output:

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0x0b 0x31 0x30 0x2e 0x31 0x35 0x2e 0x31 0x32 0x2e 0x36 0x37

Corresponds to: 10.15.12.67

Adds the DNS server

9

Get NTP server

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ipmitool raw 0x32 0xA7

Output:

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01 11 31 2e 69 6e 2e 70 6f 6f 6c 2e 6e 74 70 2e 6f 72 67

Where:

  • 01 – NTP status enable/disable

  • 11 – NTP server length

  • 31 2e 69 6e 2e 70 6f 6f 6c 2e 6e 74 70 2e 6f 72 67 – NTP server address byte stream corresponds to 1.in.pool.ntp.org

Gets NTP server

10

Add NTP server

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ipmitool raw 0x32 0xA8 0x01 0x31 0x2e 0x69 0x6e 0x2e 0x70 0x6f 0x6f 0x6c 0x2e 0x6e 0x74 0x70 0x2e 0x6f 0x72 0x67

Where:

  • 31 2e 69 6e 2e 70 6f 6f 6c 2e 6e 74 70 2e 6f 72 67 – NTP server address byte stream corresponds to 1.in.pool.ntp.org

Adds NTP server

11

Enable time sync to NTP server

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ipmitool raw 0x32 0xA8 0x02 0x01

Where:

  • 0x01 – enable NTP

Enables NTP time sync

12

Enable time sync to system RTC

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ipmitool raw 0x32 0xA8 0x02 0x00

Where:

  • 0x00 – disable NTP

Disables NTP time sync

To reboot/reset the BMC:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"ResetType": "GracefulRestart"}' https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/Managers/Bluefield_BMC/Actions/Manager.Reset

Where:

  • bmc_ip – BMC IP address

  • token – session token received when establishing connection

Run the following IPMI command to factory reset the BMC configuration.

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ipmitool raw 0x32 0x66

After issuing the ipmitool raw command for factory reset, you must log into the BMC and reboot it for the factory reset to take effect.

Warning

If you have lost your BMC login credentials and cannot login, you may issue the following command from the BlueField Arm:

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ipmitool mc reset cold

Important

Before connecting to the internet, it is important to change the default global password to prevent potential malicious attackers from hacking your system. For information on password policy, refer to section "BMC Management Interface".

Firmware upgrade of BMC and CEC components using BMC can be performed from a remote server using the Redfish interface. The following table presents commands available for performing the upgrade:

No.

Function

Command

Required for BMC/CEC Update

Description

1

Establish Redfish connection session

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export token=`curl -k -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST https://<bmc_ip>/login -d '{"username" : "root", "password" : "<password>"}' | grep token | awk '{print $2;}' | tr -d '"'`

Where:

  • bmc_ip – BMC IP address

  • password – Password of root account

BMC

CEC

Establish Redfish connection session

2

Trigger a secure firmware update

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -H "Content-Type: application/octet-stream" -X POST -T <package_path> https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/update

Where:

  • bmc_ip – BMC IP address

  • token – session token received when establishing connection

  • package_path – firmware update package path

BMC

CEC

Triggers the secure update and starts tracking the secure update progress

3

Track secure firmware update progress

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/TaskService/Tasks

Find the current task ID in the response and use it for checking the progress:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/TaskService/Tasks/<task_id> | jq -r ' .PercentComplete'

Where:

  • bmc_ip – BMC IP address

  • token – session token received when establishing connection

  • task_id – Task ID

BMC

CEC

Tracks the firmware update progress

4

Reset/reboot a BMC

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST -d '{"ResetType": "GracefulRestart"}' https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/Managers/Bluefield_BMC/Actions/Manager.Reset

Where:

  • bmc_ip – BMC IP address

  • token – session token received when establishing connection

BMC

Resets/reboots the BMC

5

Fetch running BMC firmware version

For BlueField-3:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory/BMC_Firmware | jq -r ' .Version'

Where:

  • bmc_ip – BMC IP address

  • token – session token received when establishing connection

BMC

Fetches the running firmware version from BMC

For BlueField-2:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory

Fetch the current firmware ID and then perform:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory/<firmware_id>_BMC_Firmware | jq -r ' .Version'

Where:

  • bmc_ip – BMC IP address

  • token – session token received when establishing connection

6

Fetch running CEC firmware version

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory/Bluefield_FW_ERoT | jq -r ' .Version'

Where:

  • bmc_ip – BMC IP address

  • token – session token received when establishing connection

CEC

Fetches the running firmware version from CEC

BMC Update

Note

Firmware update takes about 12 minutes.

After initiating the BMC secure update with the command #2 to from the previous table, a response similar to the following is received:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -H "Content-Type: application/octet-stream" -X POST -T <package_path> https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService   { "@odata.id": "/redfish/v1/TaskService/Tasks/0", "@odata.type": "#Task.v1_4_3.Task", "Id": "0", "TaskState": "Running" }

Command #3 from the previous table can be used to track secure firmware update progress. For instance:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/TaskService/Tasks/0 | jq -r ' .PercentComplete'   % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 2123 100 2123 0 0 38600 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 37910 20

Command #3 is used to verify the task has completed because during the update procedure the reboot option is disabled. When "PercentComplete" reaches 100, command #4 is used to reboot the BMC. For example:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/TaskService/Tasks/0 | jq -r ' .PercentComplete' % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 3822 100 3822 0 0 81319 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 81319 100   curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -H "Content-Type: application/octet-stream" -X POST -d '{"ResetType": "GracefulRestart"}' https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/Managers/Bluefield_BMC/Actions/Manager.Reset { "@Message.ExtendedInfo": [ { "@odata.type": "#Message.v1_1_1.Message", "Message": "The request completed successfully.", "MessageArgs": [], "MessageId": "Base.1.13.0.Success", "MessageSeverity": "OK", "Resolution": "None" } ] }

Command #5 can be used to verify the current BMC firmware version after reboot:

  • For BlueField-3:

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    curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory/BMC_Firmware | jq -r ' .Version'   % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 513 100 513 0 0 9679 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 9679

  • For BlueField-2:

    1. Fetch the firmware ID from FirmwareInventory:

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      curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https:/<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory/ { "@odata.id": "/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory", "@odata.type": "#SoftwareInventoryCollection.SoftwareInventoryCollection", "Members": [ { "@odata.id": "/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory/8c8549f3_BMC_Firmware" …

    2. Use command #5 with the fetched firmware ID in the previous step:

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      curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https:/<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory/8c8549f3_BMC_Firmware | jq -r ' .Version'   % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 471 100 471 0 0 622 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 621 bmc-23.04

CEC Update

Note

Firmware update takes about 20 seconds.

After initiating the BMC secure update with the command #2 to from the previous table, a response similar to the following is received:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -H "Content-Type: application/octet-stream" -X POST -T <package_path> https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService { "@odata.id": "/redfish/v1/TaskService/Tasks/0", "@odata.type": "#Task.v1_4_3.Task", "Id": "0", "TaskState": "Running" }

Command #3 can be used to track the progress of the CEC firmware update. For example:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/TaskService/Tasks/0 | jq -r ' .PercentComplete' % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 2123 100 2123 0 0 38600 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 37910 100

After the CEC secure update operation is complete, a power cycle or cold reset of the BlueField-3 DPU must be manually triggered to apply the changes once the update is finished.

Command #6 can be used to verify the current CEC firmware version after reboot:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/UpdateService/FirmwareInventory/Bluefield_FW_ERoT | jq -r ' .Version'   % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 421 100 421 0 0 1172 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 1172 19-4


CEC Background Update Status

Note

This section is relevant only for BlueField-3.

BMC and CEC have an active and inactive copy of the same firmware image on their respective firmware SPI flash. The firmware update updates the inactive copy, and on a successful boot from the newly updated and active image, the inactive image (e.g., the previous active image) is updated with the latest image.

Warning

Firmware update cannot be initiated if the background copy is in progress.

To check the status of the background update:

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: <token>" -X GET https://<bmc_ip>/redfish/v1/Chassis/Bluefield_ERoT ... "Oem": { "Nvidia": { "@odata.type": "#NvidiaChassis.v1_0_0.NvidiaChassis", "AutomaticBackgroundCopyEnabled": true, "BackgroundCopyStatus": "Completed", "InbandUpdatePolicyEnabled": true } } …

Note

The background update initially indicates InProgress while the inactive copy of the image is being updated with the copy.


Possible Error Codes

Note

This section is relevant only for BlueField-3.

Fault

Diagnosis and Possible Solution

Connection to BMC breaks during firmware package transfer

  • Redfish task URI is not returned by the Redfish server

  • The Redfish server (if operational) is in idle state

  • After a reboot of BMC, or restart/recovery of the Redfish server, the Redfish server is in idle state

A new firmware update can be attempted by the Redfish client.

Connection to BMC breaks during firmware update

  • Redfish task URI previously returned by the Redfish server is no longer accessible

  • The Redfish server (if operational) is in one of the following states:

    • In idle state, if the firmware update has completed

    • In update state, if the firmware update is still ongoing

  • After a BMC reboot, or the restart/recovery of the Redfish server, the Redfish server is in idle state

A new firmware update can be attempted by the Redfish client.

Two firmware update requests are initiated

The Redfish server blocks the second firmware update request and returns the following:

  • HTTP code 400 "Bad Request"

  • Redfish message based on standard registry entry UpdateInProgress

Check the status of the ongoing firmware update by looking at the TaskCollection resource.

Redfish task hangs

  • Redfish task URI that previously returned by the Redfish server is no longer accessible

  • PLDM-based firmware update progresses

  • After a reboot of BMC, or restart/recovery of the Redfish server, the Redfish server us in idle state

A new firmware update can be attempted by the Redfish client.

BMC-EROT communication failure during image transfer

The Redfish task monitoring the firmware update indicates a failure:

  • TaskState is set to Exception

  • TaskStatus is set to Warning

  • Messages array in the task includes an entry based on the standard registry Update.1.0.0.TransferFailed indicating the components that failed during image transfer

The Redfish client may retry the firmware update.

Firmware update fails

The Redfish task monitoring the firmware update indicates a failure:

  • TaskState is set to Exception

  • TaskStatus is set to Warning

  • Messages array in the task includes an entry describing the error

The Redfish client may retry the firmware update.

ERoT failure (not responding)

The Redfish task monitoring the firmware update indicates a failure:

  • TaskState is set to Canceled

  • TaskStatus is set to Warning

  • Messages array in the task includes an entry describing the error

  • The Redfish client reports the error

The Redfish client may retry the firmware update.

Firmware image validation failure

The Redfish task monitoring the firmware update indicates a failure:

  • TaskState is set to Exception

  • TaskStatus is set to Warning

  • Messages array in the task includes an entry based on the standard registry Update.1.0.0.VerificationFailed to indicate the component for which verification failed

  • The Redfish client reports the error

The Redfish client might retry the firmware update.

Power loss before activation command is sent

  • The Redfish server is in idle state

A new firmware update can be attempted by the Redfish client.

Firmware activation failure

The Redfish task monitoring the firmware update indicates a failure:

  • TaskState is set to Exception

  • TaskStatus is set to Warning

  • Messages array in the task includes an entry based on the standard registry Update.1.0.ActivateFailed

The Redfish client may retry the firmware update.

Push to BMC firmware package greater than 200 MB

  • No Redfish task is created

  • Messages array in the task includes an entry based on the standard registry Base.1.8.1.ResourceExhaustion and a request to retry the operation is given.


Redfish triggers allow the user to get a journal message when a certain metric crosses a defined threshold for a defined time:

  • The trigger threshold can only be a numeric threshold

  • The trigger thresholds are unrelated to the sensor thresholds

  • The maximum number of triggers allowed in the system is 10

For more details, refer to Redfish Resource and Schema Guide.

No.

Function

Command

Description

1

Add a numeric trigger

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: $token" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST https://${bmc}/redfish/v1/TelemetryService/Triggers/ -d '{"Id":"< >","Name":"<>","MetricType":"<>","TriggerActions":["<>"],"NumericThresholds":{"<>":{"Activation":"<>","DwellTime":"<>","Reading":<>}},"MetricProperties":["<>"]}'

Adds a numeric trigger to the BMC

2

Delete a trigger

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: $token" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X DELETE https://${bmc}/redfish/v1/TelemetryService/Triggers/<trigger-name>

Deletes a trigger

Certificate management actions (e.g., getting certificate information, doing atomic replacement of certificates) are found in the CertificateService resource.

The CertificateLocations resource is responsible for providing inventory of all the certificates which the service manages.

More details can be found in the Redfish Certificate Management White Paper.

No.

Function

Command

Description

1

Get certificate locations

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: $token" -X GET https://{$bmc}/redfish/v1/CertificateService/CertificateLocations

Inventory of all certificates the service is managing

2

Get certificate Information

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: $token" -X GET https://{$bmc}/redfish/v1/Managers/Bluefield_BMC/NetworkProtocol/HTTPS/Certificates/1

Get

certificate info

3

Replace existing certificate

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: $token" -X POST https://{$bmc}/redfish/v1/CertificateService/Actions/CertificateService.ReplaceCertificate -d @certificate.json

Replace certificate

4

Generate CSR

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: $token" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST https://${bmc}/redfish/v1/CertificateService/Actions/CertificateService.GenerateCSR -d @csr_file.json

Generate certificate signing request

5

Install a certificate

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curl -k -H "X-Auth-Token: $token" -H "Content-Type: application/octet-stream" -X POST https://${bmc}/redfish/v1/Managers/Bluefield_BMC/NetworkProtocol/HTTPS/Certificates -d @certificate.json

Install a certificate

© Copyright 2023, NVIDIA. Last updated on Nov 13, 2023.