1. CUDA Toolkit Major Components

This section provides an overview of the major components of the CUDA Toolkit and points to their locations after installation.

Compiler
The CUDA-C and CUDA-C++ compiler, nvcc, is found in the bin/ directory. It is built on top of the NVVM optimizer, which is itself built on top of the LLVM compiler infrastructure. Developers who want to target NVVM directly can do so using the Compiler SDK, which is available in the nvvm/ directory.
Tools
The following development tools are available in the bin/ directory (except for Nsight Visual Studio Edition (VSE) which is installed as a plug-in to Microsoft Visual Studio).
  • IDEs: nsight (Linux, Mac), Nsight VSE (Windows)
  • Debuggers: cuda-memcheck, cuda-gdb (Linux, Mac), Nsight VSE (Windows)
  • Profilers: nvprof, nvvp, Nsight VSE (Windows)
  • Utilities: cuobjdump, nvdisasm
Libraries
The scientific and utility libraries listed below are available in the lib/ directory (DLLs on Windows are in bin/), and their interfaces are available in the include/ directory.
  • cublas (BLAS)
  • cublas_device (BLAS Kernel Interface)
  • cuda_occupancy (Kernel Occupancy Calculation [header file implementation])
  • cudadevrt (CUDA Device Runtime)
  • cudart (CUDA Runtime)
  • cufft (Fast Fourier Transform [FFT])
  • cupti (Profiling Tools Interface)
  • curand (Random Number Generation)
  • cusolver (Dense and Sparse Direct Linear Solvers and Eigen Solvers)
  • cusparse (Sparse Matrix)
  • npp (NVIDIA Performance Primitives [image and signal processing])
  • nvblas ("Drop-in" BLAS)
  • nvcuvid (CUDA Video Decoder [Windows, Linux])
  • nvrtc (CUDA Runtime Compilation)
  • thrust (Parallel Algorithm Library [header file implementation])
CUDA Samples
Code samples that illustrate how to use various CUDA and library APIs are available in the samples/ directory on Linux and Mac, and are installed to C:\ProgramData\NVIDIA Corporation\CUDA Samples on Windows. On Linux and Mac, the samples/ directory is read-only and the samples must be copied to another location if they are to be modified. Further instructions can be found in the Getting Started Guides for Linux and Mac.
Documentation
The most current version of these release notes can be found online at http://docs.nvidia.com/cuda/cuda-toolkit-release-notes/index.html.
Documentation can be found in PDF form in the doc/pdf/ directory, or in HTML form at doc/html/index.html and online at http://docs.nvidia.com/cuda/index.html.
CUDA-GDB Sources
CUDA-GDB sources are available as follows:

2. New Features

2.1. General CUDA

  • The default stream, used either when 0 is passed as a cudaStream_t or by APIs that operate on a stream implicitly, can now be configured to be a separate stream per thread that will not synchronize with other streams. Currently, operations in the default stream will serialize with other streams (see Stream Synchronization Behavior in the API documentation). This new behavior is not enabled by default and can be controlled per compilation unit with the --default-streamnvcc option.
  • Added a method to the CUDA Driver API, cuDevicePrimaryCtxRetain(), that allows a program to create (or to access if it already exists) the same CUDA context for a GPU device as the one used by the CUDART (CUDA Runtime API) library. This context is referred to as the primary context, and this new method allows for sharing the primary context between CUDART and other threads, which can reduce the performance overhead of creating and maintaining multiple contexts per device.
  • Unified the device enumeration for CUDA, NVML, and related tools. Variable CUDA_DEVICE_ORDER can have a value of FASTEST_FIRST (default) or PCI_BUS_ID.
  • Instrumented NVML (NVIDA Management Library) and the CUDA driver to ignore GPUs that have been made inaccessible via cgroups (control groups). This enables schedulers that rely on cgroups to enforce device access restrictions for their jobs. Job schedulers wanting to use cgroups for device restriction need CUDA and NVML to handle those restrictions in a graceful way.
  • Multi-Process Service (MPS) is now supported on GeForce products in addition to Tesla and Quadro products.
  • Multi-Process Service now supports concurrent execution of GPU tasks on multiple GPUs at once. At startup, the MPS server attempts to spin up a context on each visible GPU and make it available to the client application.
  • The Windows and Mac OS X installers are now also available as network installers. A network installer is much smaller than the traditional local installer and downloads only the components selected for installation.

2.2. CUDA Tools

2.2.1. CUDA Compiler

  • On supported x86_64 Linux operating systems, the PGI C/C++ compiler (pgc++) is supported as a host compiler by nvcc.
  • POWER8 XL compiler 13.1.1 is supported.
  • Added support for GCC 4.9.
  • On Mac OS X, libc++ is supported with XCode 5.x. Command-line option -Xcompiler -stdlib=libstdc++ is no longer needed when invoking NVCC. Instead, NVCC uses the default library that Clang chooses on Mac OS X. Users are still able to choose between libc++ and libstdc++ by passing -Xcompiler -stdlib=libc++ or -Xcompiler -stdlib=libstdc++ to NVCC.
  • The Runtime Compilation library (nvrtc) provides an API to compile CUDA-C++ device source code at runtime. The resulting compiled PTX can be launched on a GPU using the CUDA Driver API. More details can be found in the libNVRTC User Guide.
  • Added C++11 support. The new nvcc flag -std=c++11 turns on C++11 features in the CUDA compiler as well as the host compiler and linker. The flag is supported by host compilers Clang and GCC versions 4.7 and newer. In addition, any C++11 features that are enabled by default by a supported host compiler are also allowed to be used in device code. Please see the CUDA Programming Guide for further details.

2.2.2. CUDA-GDB

  • Starting with CUDA 7.0, GPU core dumps can read by CUDA-GDB with the target cudacore ${gpucoredump} and target core ${cpucoredump} ${gpucoredump} commands.
  • Enabled CUDA applications to generate a GPU core dump when an exception is hit on the GPU. The feature is supported on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktops. (Android, L4T, and Vibrante support may come in the future.) On Windows, this feature is only supported in TCC mode. On Unix-like operating systems (Linux, OS X, etc.), a CPU core dump is generated along with a GPU core dump.

2.2.3. CUDA-MEMCHECK

  • Enabled the reporting of divergent block synchronization.
  • Enabled the tracking and reporting of uninitialized global memory.

2.2.4. CUDA Profiler

  • On supported chips (sm_30 and beyond), all hardware counters exposed by CUDA profiling tools (nvprof, nvvp, and Nsight Eclipse Edition) can now be profiled from multiple applications at the same time.

2.2.5. Nsight Eclipse Edition

  • Cross compiling to the POWER8 target architecture using the GNU tool-chain is now supported within the Nsight IDE.

2.3. CUDA Libraries

2.3.1. cuBLAS Library

  • A license is no longer required in order to use cuBLAS-XT with more than two GPUs.
  • The batched LU solver cublas{T}getrsBatched routine has been added to cuBLAS. It takes the output of the batched factorization routines cublas{T}getrfBatched to compute the solution given the provided batch of right-hand-side matrices.

2.3.2. cuFFT Library

  • For CUDA 7.0, support for callback routines, invoked when cuFFT loads and/or stores data, no longer requires an evaluation license file.
  • For CUDA 7.0, cuFFT multiple-GPU execution is supported on up to four GPUs, except for single 1D complex-to-complex transforms, which are supported on two or four GPUs.
  • In CUDA 7.0, transform execution may be distributed to four GPUs with the same CUDA architecture. In addition, multiple GPU support for two or four GPUs is no longer constrained to GPUs on a single board.
  • For CUDA 7.0, single complex-to-complex 2D and 3D transforms with dimensions that can be factored into primes less than or equal to 127 are supported on multiple GPUs. Single complex-to-complex 1D transforms on multiple GPUs continue to be limited to sizes that are powers of 2.

2.3.3. cuSOLVER Library

  • CUDA 7.0 introduces cuSOLVER, a new library that is a collection of routines to solve linear systems and Eigen problems. It includes dense and sparse linear solvers and sparse refactorization.
  • Enabled offloading dense linear algebra calls to the GPUs in a sparse direct solver.

2.3.4. cuSPARSE Library

  • Added a new cusparse<t>csrgemm2() routine optimized for small matrices and operations C = a*A*B + b*D, where A, B, and D are CSR matrices.
  • Added graph coloring.

2.3.5. CUDA Math Library

  • Support for 3D and 4D Euclidean norm and 3D Euclidean reciprocal norm has been added to the math library.

2.3.6. Thrust Library

  • Thrust version 1.8.0 introduces support for algorithm invocation from CUDA __device__ code, support for CUDA streams, and algorithm performance improvements. Users may now invoke Thrust algorithms from CUDA __device__ code, providing a parallel algorithms library to CUDA programmers authoring custom kernels as well as allowing Thrust programmers to nest their algorithm calls within functors. The thrust::seq execution policy allows users to require sequential algorithm execution in the calling thread and makes a sequential algorithms library available to individual CUDA threads. The .on(stream) syntax allows users to request a CUDA stream for kernels launched during algorithm execution. Finally, new CUDA algorithm implementations provide substantial performance improvements.

2.4. CUDA Samples

  • The CUDA Samples makefile x86_64=1 and ARMv7=1 options have been deprecated. Please use TARGET_ARCH to set the targeted build architecture instead. The CUDA Samples makefile GCC option has been deprecated. Please use HOST_COMPILER to set the host compiler instead.

3. Unsupported Features

The following features are officially unsupported in the current release. Developers must employ alternative solutions to these features in their software.
Support for 32-bit x86 Linux Systems
The CUDA Toolkit and CUDA Driver no longer support developing and running CUDA and OpenCL Applications on 32-bit x86 Linux operating systems.
Note 1: Developing and running 32-bit applications on 64-bit (x86_64) Linux operating systems is still supported, but that functionality is marked as deprecated and may be dropped in a future release. 64-bit applications are not impacted.
Note 2: This notice applies to x86 architectures only; 32-bit application support on the ARM architecture remains officially supported.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and CentOS 5
CUDA no longer supports the RHEL 5 and CentOS 5 Linux distributions. Please note that RHEL 6, RHEL 7, CentOS 6, and CentOS 7 are all supported.
CUDA Toolkit and CUDA Driver Support for Tesla Architecture
The CUDA Toolkit and CUDA Driver no longer supports the sm_10, sm_11, sm_12, and sm_13 architectures. As a consequence, CU_TARGET_COMPUTE_1x enum values have been removed from the CUDA headers.
Certain CUDA Features on 32-bit and 32-on-64-bit Windows Systems
The CUDA Toolkit no longer supports 32-bit Windows operating systems. Furthermore, the Windows CUDA Driver no longer supports Tesla and Quadro products on 32-bit Windows operating systems. Additionally, on 64-bit Windows operating systems, the following features are no longer supported by the CUDA driver or CUDA toolkit:
  • Running 32-bit applications on Tesla and Quadro products
  • Using the Thrust library from 32-bit applications
  • 32-bit versions of the CUDA Toolkit scientific libraries, including cuBLAS, cuSPARSE, cuFFT, cuRAND, and NPP
  • 32-bit versions of the CUDA samples
Note the above list doesn't impact any 64-bit components on Windows.
Using gcc as a Host Compiler on Mac OS X
On Mac OS X platforms, nvcc no longer supports the gcc toolchain for compiling host code, including the GNU stdlibc++ standard C++ library. Developers should use the clang/llvm toolchain for compiling host code instead; nvcc does this by default in CUDA 7.0 on supported Mac OS X platforms.

4. Deprecated Features

The following features are deprecated in the current release of the CUDA software. The features still work in the current release, but their documentation may have been removed, and they will become officially unsupported in a future release. We recommend that developers employ alternative solutions to these features in their software.

Developing and Running 32-bit CUDA and OpenCL Applications on x86 Linux Platforms

Support for developing and running 32-bit CUDA and OpenCL applications on 64-bit x86 Linux platforms is deprecated.

CUDA Samples Makefile x86_64=1 and ARMv7=1 Options

The CUDA Samples Makefile x86_64=1 and ARMv7=1 options have been deprecated. Please use TARGET_ARCH to set the targeted build architecture instead. The CUDA Samples Makefile GCC option has been deprecated. Please use HOST_COMPILER to set the host compiler instead.

Header File sobol_direction_vectors.h.

The sobol_direction_vectors.h header file is deprecated. This file allowed developers to employ the cuRAND device API with sobol distributions. However, since it is large and takes significant amounts of time and RAM to compile, this file is deprecated in favor of the curandGetDirectionVectors{32,64}() and curandGetScrambleConstants{32,64}() functions. These functions return a memory pointer to the direction vectors that are precompiled into the cuRAND library, and developers should use this pointer to copy the vectors to the GPU device memory.

5. Performance Improvements

5.1. CUDA Libraries

5.1.1. cuFFT Library

  • For CUDA 7.0, a new mode has been added for copying single 1D transform input from the host to the GPU. This mode redistributes the inputs as required by the first computation phase of the algorithm and eliminates the overhead of this data redistribution from the execution phase.
  • In CUDA 7.0, new composite-sized FFT kernels have been added for many sizes which can be factored into small primes. Composite sizes up to 256 are nearly completely represented, and there is some coverage for sizes up to 1920. This was done to reduce the number of kernel invocations done on the host and will result in significant speed improvements for many composite sizes. Note that these composite-size kernels are not used in combination with the cuFFT callback feature.

5.1.2. CUDA Math Library

  • The performance of the double-precision reciprocal instruction rcp(x) in round-to-nearest mode was significantly improved.

6. Resolved Issues

6.1. General CUDA

  • On openSUSE and SLES, X no longer fails to load if the CUDA Toolkit RPM packages are installed using relocation immediately following an installation of the cuda-drivers package.
  • The Windows toolkit installation no longer fails if Visual Studio, Nvda.Launcher.exe, Nsight.Monitor.exe, or Nvda.CrashReporter.exe is running.
  • The cuda and gpu-deployment-kit packages must be installed by separate executions of yum. See the Linux Getting Started Guide for more details.
  • The CUDA reference manual now correctly describes the CUDA device pointer CUdeviceptr as an unsigned integer type whose size matches the size of a pointer on the target platform.

6.2. CUDA Tools

6.2.1. CUDA Compiler

  • A compiler bug that caused a lack of synchronization at the end of loop iterations was fixed. The bug would cause a barrier instruction to be reached by some threads and not others. For these cases to work correctly, threads should be synchronized at the end of each loop iteration and begin each new iteration in lockstep.

6.2.2. Nsight Eclipse Edition

  • Starting with CUDA 7.0, to cross-compile a CUDA project, Nsight uses the default cross-compiler available on the host (or remote) operating system.

6.2.3. NVIDIA Visual Profiler

  • In the Visual Profiler timeline, the colors of intervals on the Compute and Stream timelines are no longer incorrect. Also the timeline modes color by stream and color by process do work.

6.3. CUDA Libraries

6.3.1. cuFFT Library

  • An issue with certain cuFFT plans that caused an assertion in the execution phase has been fixed. The issue applied to plans with all of the following characteristics: real input to complex output (R2C), in-place, native compatibility mode, certain even transform sizes, and more than one batch.

6.3.2. cuSPARSE Library

  • CUDA 7.0 fixed bugs in the csr2csc() and bsr2bsc() routines that were in the CUDA 6.0 and 6.5 releases. As a consequence, csrsv(), csrsv2(), csrsm(), bsrsv2(), bsrsm2(), and csrgemm() now produce correct results when working with transpose (CUSPARSE_OPERATION_TRANSPOSE) or conjugate-transpose (CUSPARSE_OPERATION_CONJUGATE_TRANSPOSE) operations.

6.4. CUDA Samples

  • To properly build the simpleCUFFT_callback sample, the -dc compiler flag no longer must be added to the compilation commands.

7. Known Issues

7.1. General CUDA

  • Prior to the removal of the NVIDIA driver debian packages, the nvidia-persistenced daemon must be shut down manually or the removal will fail.
  • The Canonical repackaging of the NVIDIA drivers on Ubuntu 14.04 may fail to upgrade cleanly to the latest version due to conflicts with the /etc/OpenCL/vendors/nvidia.icd file. To address this issue, remove the nvidia-opencl-icd-* package and then try the upgrade again. For more information, see https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/nvidia-graphics-drivers-331-updates/+bug/1328762.
  • If the Windows toolkit installation fails, it may be because Visual Studio, Nvda.Launcher.exe, Nsight.Monitor.exe, or Nvda.CrashReporter.exe is running. Make sure these programs are closed and try to install again.
  • Peer access is disabled between two devices if either of them is in SLI mode.
  • The following is a list of known CUDA 7.0 issues with the IBM POWER8 platform.
    • The POWER8 driver installation incorrectly overrides the mesa GL alternative. To access the mesa GL libraries, manually select the mesa GL alternative by running the following command: sudo update-alternatives --config powerpc64le-linux-gnu_gl_conf.
    • The libcuvid library isn't supported on POWER8.
    • NVIDIA video display driver and OpenGL implementations are not available on POWER8 at this time. Some samples may build and execute using alternative OpenGL implementations, but samples requiring NVIDIA's OpenGL will not work.
    • The IBM XL C/C++ compiler does not currently support OpenMP. When using that compiler as the host compiler with nvcc, samples that require OpenMP will fail to build.
    • The VDPAU API is not supported.
    • NVIDIA GPUDirect RDMA and GPUDirect P2P are not supported on POWER8, although they are not explicitly disabled.

7.2. CUDA Tools

7.2.1. CUDA Compiler

  • When C++11 code (-std=c++11) is compiled on Linux with gcc as the host compiler, invoking pow() or std::pow() from device code with (float, int) or (double, int) arguments will not compile successfully. This will work from host functions or if the -std=c++11 compilation option is not used. Developers can work around this issue by explicitly casting the second arguments to float or double, as appropriate.

7.2.2. CUDA Profiler

  • The profiler may fail to collect events or metrics when application replay mode is turned on for a application that uses CUDA driver APIs to launch the kernel. In this case, use kernel replay mode.

7.3. CUDA Libraries

7.3.1. Thrust Library

  • On the SLES 11 Linux distribution, there is a known issue that causes the TestGetTemporaryBufferDispatchExplicit and TestGetTemporaryBufferDispatchImplicit unit tests provided with the Thrust library to fail.
  • On the SLES 11 Linux distribution, there is a known issue that causes the segmentationTreeThrust CUDA sample in the 6_Advanced directory to fail.

Notices

Notice

ALL NVIDIA DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS, REFERENCE BOARDS, FILES, DRAWINGS, DIAGNOSTICS, LISTS, AND OTHER DOCUMENTS (TOGETHER AND SEPARATELY, "MATERIALS") ARE BEING PROVIDED "AS IS." NVIDIA MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED, IMPLIED, STATUTORY, OR OTHERWISE WITH RESPECT TO THE MATERIALS, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NONINFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, NVIDIA Corporation assumes no responsibility for the consequences of use of such information or for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use. No license is granted by implication of otherwise under any patent rights of NVIDIA Corporation. Specifications mentioned in this publication are subject to change without notice. This publication supersedes and replaces all other information previously supplied. NVIDIA Corporation products are not authorized as critical components in life support devices or systems without express written approval of NVIDIA Corporation.

Trademarks

NVIDIA and the NVIDIA logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of NVIDIA Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. Other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are associated.