NVIDIA Optical Flow Accelerator

Introduction

NVIDIA® GPUs, starting with the NVIDIA Turing™ generation, contain a hardware accelerator for computing optical flow and stereo disparity between frames (referred to as NVOFA in this document), which works independently of graphics/NVIDIA CUDA® cores. With end-to-end optical flow calculation offloaded to NVOFA, the graphics/CUDA cores and the CPU are free for other operations.

Optical flow vectors are useful in various use-cases such as object detection and tracking, video frame rate up-conversion, depth estimation, stitching etc. It is also observed that using flow vectors for object detection also increases inference accuracy1.

The hardware capabilities of NVOFA are exposed through APIs referred to as NVOF APIs.

The GA100 and above GPUs support an advanced version of NVOFA. Optical Flow SDK 2.0 adds support of the optical flow functionality for GA100 and above GPUs.

NVOFA Capabilities

NVOFA engine can operate in two modes:

  • Optical Flow Mode: In this mode, the engine generates flow vectors between two given frames, returning both X and Y components of the flow vectors.
  • Stereo Disparity Mode: In this mode, the engine generates flow vectors in X direction only. This mode is useful in use-cases in which the Y-component of the vectors is not required, or it is known a priori that it is zero (e.g. finding disparity between the left and right images of a stereo capture).

The hardware generates flow vectors block-wise, one vector for each block of 4 × 4, 2 x 2 and 1 x 1 pixels (referred to as grid).   The generated vectors can be further post-processed in software to improve accuracy; up sampled to produce dense flow map.

NVOFA hardware natively supports multiple hardware contexts with negligible context-switching penalty. As a result, subject to the hardware performance limit and available memory, an application can generate motion vectors for multiple contexts simultaneously.

The NVOFA hardware is supported for all Turing GPUs (except TU117) and above.

NVOF API

Capabilities of NVOFA are exposed via NVOF APIs. NVOF API includes two types of software interfaces:

  • CUDA input buffers: Cross-platform API, works on Linux and Windows.
  • DirectX 11 input buffers: Works on Windows 8 and above.

Refer to the sample applications included in the Optical Flow SDK for more details.

Table 1 and Table 2 summarize the capabilities of the NVOFA hardware and the features exposed through NVOF APIs in Optical Flow SDK 2.0 respectively.

Table 1. NVOFA Hardware Capabilities
Hardware Features Turing GA100 and above
Optical flow and stereo mode Y Y
Support for external hints Y Y
4x4 grid size Y Y
2x2 and 1x1 grid size N Y
Hardware cost N Y
Region of interest (ROI) optical flow calculation N Y
Maximum supported resolution 4096x4096 4096x4096
  • Y: Supported, N: Unsupported
Table 2. Features exposed through NVOF SDK 2.0
Sr. No. Feature Description
1 Support for GA100 and above GPUs NVOF SDK 2.0 adds underlying driver support for NVOFA present in GA100 and above GPUs and exposes newly added features supported on GA100 and above GPUs.
2 Support for 1x1 and 2x2 grid size GA100 and above GPUs add support for generating native flow vectors for 2x2 and 1x1 grid sizes, whereas Turing GPUs supported only 4x4 grid size and client applications therefore had to up sample the flow vectors to generate a denser flow. NVOF SDK 2.0 adds support for 2x2 and 1x1 grid sizes on GA100 and above GPUs.
3 Hardware cost The calculation of cost associated with flow vector on Turing GPUs is done using CUDA inside the NVIDIA display driver which ended up consuming the bandwidth of graphics engine. However, NVOFA present in GA100 and above GPUs calculate the cost internally (there by savings graphics engine bandwidth) and is more accurate. NVOF SDK 2.0 adds support for obtaining the hardware cost on GA100 and above GPUs.
4 Region of interest (ROI) GA100 and above GPUs support the calculation of flow vectors for specified region(s) inside a frame instead of calculating the flow vectors for the entire frame. This results to improved performance in use cases like object tracking, where flow vectors of specific objects only need to be computed. This functionality is exposed in NVOF SDK 2.0.
5 NVOFA assisted tracker NVOF SDK2.0 adds end-to-end support for NVOFA assisted object tracker, which helps track objects in a video sequence and can be used for survillience. Use of NVOFA results to reduced graphics engine utilization thereby resulting to increased througput.

NVOFA Quality and Performance

The NVOF API exposes multiple quality and performance levels (which are referred to as presets) which the user can choose based on the desired quality and performance requirement. Figure 1 shows the performance/quality trade-off to be expected with the presets.

Figure 1. Performance/Quality Presets exposed in NVOF API

Performance/Quality Presets exposed in NVOF API

The NVOFA provides real time performance with small CUDA core utilization. Table 3 shows indicative2 performance and quality of NVOF API on KITTI 2105 which is publicly available data set. Users can trade quality vs. performance by choosing the right preset. Note that performance numbers in Table 3 are measured with assumptions listed under the table. The performance varies across GPU classes (e.g. Quadro, Tesla), and scales (almost) linearly with the clock speeds for each hardware.

Table 3. Indicative quality and performance
Grid size Preset   Fl-bg Fl-fg Fl-all Performance
Turing Ampere Turing Ampere Turing Ampere Turing Ampere
4x4 SLOW NOC 21.75 16.57 24.89 26.77 22.29 18.32 212 226
OCC 33.58 28.92 27.62 29.32 32.67 28.98
MEDIUM NOC 21.68 19.71 36.59 33.30 24.23 22.04 475 550
OCC 33.45 31.54 38.89 35.66 34.28 32.17
FAST NOC 22.81 22.43 47.39 39.02 27.01 25.26 864 776
OCC 34.34 33.86 49.32 41.25 36.64 35.00
2x2 SLOW NOC N/A 16.24 N/A 26.95 N/A 18.07 N/A 103
OCC 28.67 29.52 28.80
MEDIUM NOC 17.48 33.32 20.18 176
OCC 29.70 35.67 30.61
FAST NOC 20.17 35.69 22.82 327
OCC 32.02 38.02 32.94
1x1 SLOW NOC 16.57 27.31 18.41 32
OCC 28.98 29.82 29.10
MEDIUM NOC 17.73 30.22 19.86 50
OCC 29.83 32.65 30.26
FAST NOC 19.69 34.51 22.22 95
OCC 31.64 36.82 32.43
  • The above data is generated for Optical Flow mode in NVOF API using .\Samples\AppOFD3D11 and .\Samples\AppOFCuda on RTX8000 and GA100, respectively..
  • The performance on windows (on CUDA interface) is typically lesser than that of Linux due to a known bug inside NVIDIA display driver.
  • All measurements are done by setting the video clocks as reported by nvidia-smi at 1755 MHz. The performance should scale according to the actual video clocks for other GPUs. Information on nvidia-smi can be found at https://developer.nvidia.com/nvidia-system-management-interface.

  • Resolution/Input format: 1920x1080/YUV 4:2:0
  • Software: Optical flow SDK 2.0, NVIDIA display driver: 445.87
  • Fl-all = Percentage of vectors having an average EPE > 3 on KITTI 2015.
  • Fl -bg = Percentage of vectors in background pixels having an average EPE > 3 on KITTI 2015.
  • Fl -fg = Percentage of vectors in foreground pixels having an average EPE > 3 on KITTI 2015.
  • Details for KITTI 2015 and the test data set can be found http://www.cvlibs.net/datasets/kitti/eval_scene_flow.php?benchmark=flow.
  • NOC = Non-occluded region
  • OCC = Occluded region

Programming NVOFA

Optical Flow SDK 2.0 is supported on R445 drivers (Windows) and R450 drivers (Linux) and above. Refer to the SDK release notes for information regarding the required driver version.

Refer to the documents and the sample applications included in the SDK package for details on how to program NVOFA.

OpenCV Support

OpenCV is one of the most popular libraries in the field of computer vision. OpenCV library contains several CPU-based and CUDA-based algorithms for computing optical flow vectors.

NVOFA can also be used with OpenCV to significantly speed up the optical flow calculation.

Note that OpenCV is an open-source project and their usage is governed by specific licenses and terms and conditions.

Notice

Notices

Notice

This document is provided for information purposes only and shall not be regarded as a warranty of a certain functionality, condition, or quality of a product. NVIDIA Corporation (“NVIDIA”) makes no representations or warranties, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained in this document and assumes no responsibility for any errors contained herein. NVIDIA shall have no liability for the consequences or use of such information or for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use. This document is not a commitment to develop, release, or deliver any Material (defined below), code, or functionality.

NVIDIA reserves the right to make corrections, modifications, enhancements, improvements, and any other changes to this document, at any time without notice.

Customer should obtain the latest relevant information before placing orders and should verify that such information is current and complete.

NVIDIA products are sold subject to the NVIDIA standard terms and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgment, unless otherwise agreed in an individual sales agreement signed by authorized representatives of NVIDIA and customer (“Terms of Sale”). NVIDIA hereby expressly objects to applying any customer general terms and conditions with regards to the purchase of the NVIDIA product referenced in this document. No contractual obligations are formed either directly or indirectly by this document.

NVIDIA products are not designed, authorized, or warranted to be suitable for use in medical, military, aircraft, space, or life support equipment, nor in applications where failure or malfunction of the NVIDIA product can reasonably be expected to result in personal injury, death, or property or environmental damage. NVIDIA accepts no liability for inclusion and/or use of NVIDIA products in such equipment or applications and therefore such inclusion and/or use is at customer’s own risk.

NVIDIA makes no representation or warranty that products based on this document will be suitable for any specified use. Testing of all parameters of each product is not necessarily performed by NVIDIA. It is customer’s sole responsibility to evaluate and determine the applicability of any information contained in this document, ensure the product is suitable and fit for the application planned by customer, and perform the necessary testing for the application in order to avoid a default of the application or the product. Weaknesses in customer’s product designs may affect the quality and reliability of the NVIDIA product and may result in additional or different conditions and/or requirements beyond those contained in this document. NVIDIA accepts no liability related to any default, damage, costs, or problem which may be based on or attributable to: (i) the use of the NVIDIA product in any manner that is contrary to this document or (ii) customer product designs.

Trademarks

NVIDIA, the NVIDIA logo, and cuBLAS, CUDA, CUDA Toolkit, cuDNN, DALI, DIGITS, DGX, DGX-1, DGX-2, DGX Station, DLProf, GPU, Jetson, Kepler, Maxwell, NCCL, Nsight Compute, Nsight Systems, NVCaffe, NVIDIA Deep Learning SDK, NVIDIA Developer Program, NVIDIA GPU Cloud, NVLink, NVSHMEM, PerfWorks, Pascal, SDK Manager, Tegra, TensorRT, TensorRT Inference Server, Tesla, TF-TRT, Triton Inference Server, Turing, and Volta are trademarks and/or registered trademarks of NVIDIA Corporation in the United States and other countries. Other company and product names may be trademarks of the respective companies with which they are associated.

2

NVOFA performance depends on many factors, including but not limited to: OFAPI settings, GPU clocks, GPU type, video content type, instantaneous available memory bandwidth etc.