In this section, we present four key functionalities of NVIDIA NeMo related to checkpoint management:

  1. Checkpoint Loading: Use the restore_from() method to load local .nemo checkpoint files.

  2. Partial Checkpoint Conversion: Convert partially-trained .ckpt checkpoints to the .nemo format.

  3. Community Checkpoint Conversion: Convert checkpoints from community sources, like HuggingFace, into the .nemo format.

  4. Model Parallelism Adjustment: Adjusting model parallelism is crucial when training models that surpass the memory capacity of a single GPU, such as the NVGPT 5B version, LLaMA2 7B version, or larger models. NeMo incorporates both tensor (intra-layer) and pipeline (inter-layer) model parallelisms. For a deeper understanding, refer to “Efficient Large-Scale Language Model Training on GPU Clusters Using Megatron-LM” (link). This tool assists in modifying model parallelism. After downloading and converting a community checkpoint to the .nemo format, if a user wishes to fine-tune it further, this adjustment might become essential.

A .nemo checkpoint is fundamentally a tar file that bundles the model configurations (given as a YAML file), model weights, and other pertinent artifacts like tokenizer models or vocabulary files. This consolidated design streamlines sharing, loading, tuning, evaluating, and inference.

On the other hand, the .ckpt file, created during PyTorch Lightning training, contains only the model weights and the optimizer states, which is used to pick up training from a pause.

The subsequent sections elucidate instructions for the functionalities above, specifically tailored for deploying fully trained checkpoints for assessment or additional fine-tuning.

By default, NeMo saves checkpoints of trained models in the .nemo format. To save a model manually during training, use:



To load a local .nemo checkpoint:


import nemo.collections.multimodal as nemo_multimodal model = nemo_multimodal.models.<MODEL_BASE_CLASS>.restore_from(restore_path="<path/to/checkpoint/file.nemo>")

Replace <MODEL_BASE_CLASS> with the appropriate MM model class.

Only the last checkpoint is automatically saved in the .nemo format. If intermediate training checkpoints evaluation is required, a .nemo conversion might be necessary. For this, refer to the script at <ADD PATH>:


python -m torch.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node=<tensor_model_parallel_size> * <pipeline_model_parallel_size> \ examples/multimodal/ \ --checkpoint_folder <path_to_PTL_checkpoints_folder> \ --checkpoint_name <checkpoint_name> \ --nemo_file_path <path_to_output_nemo_file> \ --tensor_model_parallel_size <tensor_model_parallel_size> \ --pipeline_model_parallel_size <pipeline_model_parallel_size>

There is no support for converting community checkpoints to NeMo ViT.

ViT Checkpoints

To adjust model parallelism from original model parallelism size to a new model parallelism size (Note: NeMo ViT currently only supports pipeline_model_parallel_size=1):


python examples/nlp/language_modeling/ \ --model_file=/path/to/source.nemo \ --target_file=/path/to/target.nemo \ --tensor_model_parallel_size=??? \ --target_tensor_model_parallel_size=??? \ --pipeline_model_parallel_size=-1 \ --target_pipeline_model_parallel_size=1 \ --precision=32 \ --model_class="" \ --tp_conversion_only

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